Doc. 9799

2 May 2003

Colonisation by Turkish settlers of the occupied part of Cyprus

Report

Committee on Migration, Refugees and Demography

Rapporteur: Mr Jaakko Laakso, Finland, Group of the Unified Left

Summary

Since the de facto partition of Cyprus in 1974, the demographic structure of the island has been continuously modified as a result of the deliberate policies of the Turkish Cypriot administration. Despite the lack of consensus on the exact figures, all parties concerned admit that Turkish nationals have been systematically arriving in the northern part of the island. At the same time, continuous outflow of the indigenous Turkish Cypriot population from the northern part may be observed. In consequence, the settlers have outnumbered the indigenous Turkish Cypriot population.

The policy of "naturalisation" implemented by the Turkish Cypriot administration encourages new arrivals and favours the process of hidden colonisation which results in the modification of the demographic structure of the whole island, and constitutes a source of tension and dissatisfaction among the indigenous population.

The Rapporteur supports the idea of the creation, with the contribution from the international community, of a Fund which would ensure the financing of possible voluntary returns of the Turkish settlers to Turkey. He is also of the opinion that Turkey should use its influence on the Turkish Cypriot administration with a view to stopping the process of colonisation and consequently to review their migration legislation and policies.

I.       Draft recommendation

1.       The Parliamentary Assembly expresses its deep disappointment at the failure of the negotiations under the aegis of the United Nations aimed at achieving the functional and viable solution to the Cyprus problem. It hopes, nevertheless, that the efforts will be resumed and continued until a durable settlement is found.

2.       It is a well-established fact that the demographic structure of the island has been continuously modified since the de facto partition of the island in 1974 as a result of the deliberate policies of the Turkish Cypriot administration and Turkey. Despite the lack of consensus on the exact figures, all parties concerned admit that Turkish nationals have been systematically arriving in the northern part of the island. According to reliable estimates, their number currently amounts to 115 000.

3.       The settlers come mainly from the region of Anatolia, one of the less developed regions in Turkey. Their customs and traditions differ in a significant way from those in Cyprus. These differences are the main reason for the tensions and dissatisfaction of the indigenous Turkish Cypriot population who tend to view them as a foreign element.

4.       In particular, the Assembly expresses its concern at the continuous outflow of the indigenous Turkish Cypriot population from the northern part. Their number decreased from 118 000 in 1974 to an estimated 87 600 in 2001. In consequence, the settlers outnumber the indigenous Turkish Cypriot population in the northern part of the island.

5.       In the light of the information available, the Assembly cannot accept the claims that the majority of arriving Turkish nationals are seasonal workers or former inhabitants who had left the island before 1974. Therefore it condemns the policy of "naturalisation" designed to encourage new arrivals and introduced by the Turkish Cypriot administration with full support of the Government of Turkey.

6.       The Assembly is convinced that the presence of the settlers constitutes a process of hidden colonisation and an additional and important obstacle to a peaceful negotiated solution of the Cyprus problem.

7.       Therefore, the Assembly recommends that the Committee of Ministers:

i.       instruct the European Population Committee (CAHP) to conduct a census of the whole island’s population, in co-operation with the authorities concerned, in order to replace estimates with reliable data;

ii.       promote the idea of the creation, with a contribution from the international community, of a Fund which would ensure the financing of possible voluntary returns of the Turkish settlers to Turkey;

iii.       encourage the involvement of the Council of Europe Development Bank, and call on the governments of Turkey and Cyprus to present concrete return projects for financing;

iv.       call on Turkey, as well as its Turkish Cypriot subordinate local administration in northern Cyprus, to stop the process of colonisation by Turkish settlers and call in particular on the Turkish Cypriot administration to review their "migration legislation" and "policies", especially the "law on naturalisation", with a view to revising them and, in consequence, bringing them into compliance with international standards;

v.       call on Turkey to comply with the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights concerning refugees’ right to property in the occupied part of Cyprus;

vi.       promote contacts and dialogue between civil societies of Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities.

II.       Explanatory memorandum by Mr Laakso

1.       Introduction

1.       The Committee on Migration, Refugees and Demography has been following the question of the demographic structure in Cyprus for a long time. It has initiated the adoption by the Parliamentary Assembly of a number of texts relating to the subject, in particular Recommendation 1056 (1987) on national refugees and missing persons in Cyprus, and Recommendation 1197 (1992) on the demographic structure of the Cypriot communities.

2.       The present report stems from the Motion for an order presented by MM. Demetriou, Christodoulides, Hadjidemetriou and others in April 2000. It is based on the information gathered from a number of sources including official statements of the Cypriot authorities as well as of the political leaders of the Turkish Cypriot community, updated information received from relevant non-governmental organisations as well as international governmental and non-governmental organisations and associations. Moreover, the Rapporteur has carried out two fact-finding visits to Cyprus where he met Cypriot authorities (see Programmes for the visits, Appendices 1 and 2). During the preparation for the first visit it was planned that the Rapporteur would also meet the political leaders of the Turkish Cypriot community. Unfortunately, this part of the visit was cancelled by the hosts at very short notice due to a religious holiday which lasted the whole week. The Rapporteur’s proposal to meet at an alternative date was also rejected. Concerning the second visit, the political leaders of the Turkish Cypriot community have made it clear from the very beginning that they did not wish to receive the Rapporteur. Finally, the report takes into account the exchange of views that the Committee held with representatives of the political forces of the Turkish Cypriot community on 26 June 2001.

3.       The political leaders of the Turkish Cypriot community have strongly insisted on the modification of the title of the report, which in its present form, in their opinion, does not reflect necessary neutrality. After having examined the subject the Rapporteur has decided not to modify the title which, in his opinion, is justified by the facts.

4.       On 1 November 2002, the Rapporteur received a letter from the Turkish Cypriot leaders commenting on the memorandum presented to the Committee (doc. AS/Mig (2002) 34). The Rapporteur will address these comments below.

5.       The main aim of this report is to examine the demographic situation and the changes that it has undergone since the last report on the subject was discussed in the Parliamentary Assembly1. It also tries to assess to what extent previous recommendations of the Parliamentary Assembly in this field have been fulfilled.

6.       The Rapporteur has concentrated, in accordance with his mandate, on demographic aspects of the problem without reference to the political issues. It should be noted that during the first part-session 2002, the Assembly adopted a Resolution presented by Mr Bársony (Hungary, SOC) on behalf of the Political Affairs Committee2. This Resolution asked the latter Committee to follow the situation in Cyprus. Moreover, the Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights has just adopted a report on the fundamental rights and freedoms of the Greek Cypriots and the Maronites living in the northern area of Cyprus (Rapporteur: Mr Marty, Switzerland, LDR).

7.       The Rapporteur has followed closely recent developments and efforts regarding the possible political solution to the conflict, and in particular the undergoing negotiations over the UN peace plan put forward by the Secretary General, Kofi Annan. Achieving an agreement over this plan would have changed the context of the demographic problem in an essential way. For that reason, the Rapporteur has decided to postpone the presentation of a draft recommendation to the Committee after the deadline set up by the United Nations on 28 February and then 10 March 2003. Unfortunately, the failure of the negotiations have buried the hope for a viable and functional solution in the immediate future.

8.       It should be noted that demographic data, particularly as far as the northern part of the island is concerned, is scarce, not always reliable and subject to controversy given the fact that it represents a particularly sensitive issue in Cyprus. Given the differences (sometimes considerable) in certain data and evaluations, the Rapporteur always quotes the source of his information throughout the whole report.

9.       In order to avoid any possible confusion, the Rapporteur would like to define the terminology used throughout the present report: the "southern part" of the island refers to the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus; the "northern part" refers to the area under the control of the Turkish occupation authorities which is not recognized by the Council of Europe.

10.       Finally, the Rapporteur would like to express his gratitude to the Cypriot Parliamentary delegation for their co-operation during the preparation of this report and, in particular, during both fact-finding visits.

2.       Demographic structures of the Cypriot communities: variations since 1974

11.       The events of 1974 led to the factual partition of the island of Cyprus into two parts 3. The Council of Europe does not recognize this partition. The northern part controlled by the Turkish occupation authorities covers 35,8% of the territory, and the Government controlled area constitutes 64,2% of the Republic of Cyprus.

12.       According to the censuses which took place in Cyprus before the factual partition of the island, the Greek Cypriot community amounted to 447,901 (78,2%) in 1960, and to 498,511 (78,9%) in 19734. The Turkish Cypriot community numbered 103,822 (18,1%) people in 1960, and 116 000 (18,4%) in 1973. The total population of Cyprus was 572,707 in 1960 and 631,778 in 1973 (see Appendix 3, Table 1). An average rate of annual growth for both communities between 1960 and 1973 was similar and amounted to 0,8%. In consequence, the ethnic distribution of the population did not change between 1960 and 1974 and the proportion of each community remained stable.

13.       Immediately before the conflict, in 1973, about 162 041 Greek Cypriots lived in the northern part of the island, and approximately 72 000 Turkish Cypriots lived in the southern part. Another 4 365 Greek Cypriots and 488 Turkish Cypriots resided in what was to become the no man’s land between the occupation army and the Cyprus National Guard. 44.916 people were living in areas at very close proximity to what was to become the Attila line.

14.       As an immediate result of the hostilities leading to the partition of the island, in 1974, in addition to a large number of people who were killed and 1 619 missing persons the number of displaced persons amounted to approximately 210 000 people. Out of this figure, the number of Greek Cypriot refugees displaced immediately after the invasion accounted for 201 000 (which constituted one third of the whole population of Cyprus), and the number of Turkish Cypriots was 8 000.

15.       At that time about 13 000 Greek Cypriots were still living in the occupied area, and approximately 35–37 000 Turkish Cypriots were living in the Government controlled area.

16.       Many of the people whose places of residence were in dangerous areas within the control of the Government returned to their homes by 1977 while at the same time enclaved persons were forced to move to the southern part resulting in a total of 167 000 Greek Cypriot refugees.

17.       On the other hand expulsions of Greek Cypriots from the occupied area have continued following discrimination, harassment and intimidation. By 1989, the number of Greek Cypriot refugees staying in the Government controlled area increased to 193 000.

18.       Also the Turkish Cypriot population living in the Greek Cypriot zone was considerably reduced as a result of transfers carried out by UN or the ICRC, and following negotiations in Vienna in early August 1975. In all, Turkish Cypriots who had moved to the occupied areas numbered about 43–45 000 at the end of 1975. The Turkish Cypriot authorities provide a higher number of 65 000 forced to move to the "northern part".

19.       It is practically impossible to obtain exact and reliable figures on the island's total population after the partition in July 1974. The figures provided by the Department of Statistics and Research of the Cypriot Government are based on the assumption that Turkish Cypriot demographic variables have gone through the same changes as that of the population in the Government controlled areas. There are serious discrepancies between the figures advanced by the Turkish Cypriot administration concerning population of Turkish Cypriots and of Turkish mainland settlers in the occupied areas. Analysis of the figures reveals spectacular divergences between the two communities, especially in the 1975-1981 period and, to a lesser degree, as from 1981.

20.       According to the Government estimates, taking into account Turkish Cypriot emigration and given the comparable rate of annual natural increase of the population, the total population of Cyprus should be 695 000 at the end of 1989 including 556 000 Greek Cypriots and 130 000 Turkish Cypriots.5 (see Appendix 3, Table 2).

21.       However, according to the Turkish Cypriot sources, the figures concerning the occupied part are considerably higher. The number of Turkish Cypriots in 1989 amounted to 169 000, and in 1997 to 203 046 (see Appendix 3, Table 3).

22.       Given the comparable rate of natural increase of the population in both parts of the island (1,3%), and the high emigration of the Turkish Cypriots, which took place after July 1974, it may be assumed that the difference between the figures comes from the introduction of settlers from Turkey to the occupied area of Cyprus.

23.       The introduction of the settlers has changed the demographic structure of the island in a considerable way: the Greek Cypriots who constituted over 78% of the total population in 1973, and 77% in 1992, now stand for 76 % of the total population of the island (see Appendix 3, Table 4).

24.       The exact figures on migration in the northern part of the island are unavailable and are based on estimations. Figures for settlers vary according to the source. Turkish figures show at least 31 000 settlers. The Turkish Cypriot and Turkish press have given far larger estimates for Turkish settlers in the occupied area including figures as high as 50 000, 80 000 or even 100 000. The figure advanced by the Government sources is 115 000 (see appendix 3, Table 5).

25.       According to the Government sources, press reports and comments by Turkish Cypriots politicians, indigenous Turkish Cypriots faced with the problems of unemployment, economic uncertainty and the pressures from Turkish settlers who are given many privileges, are leaving the country. It is estimated that between 1974 and 2000, approximately 55 000 indigenous Turkish Cypriots left the country; a figure which represents about a third of all Turkish Cypriots. At the same time the number of settlers from Turkey was even higher. Again, according to the same source of information, in 2000, the number of the Turkish settlers exceeded the number of the indigenous estimated at 87 800 at the end of 2000. Thus, in addition to the inflow of Turkish settlers, there is a process of replacement of indigenous population by the new comers.

26.       Given the continuing reports of emigration of Turkish Cypriots and the fact that the population in the occupied areas increases every year by more than the birth and death rates justify, it seems relevant to assume that the number of Turkish mainland settlers is much higher.

27.       The Turkish Cypriot administration claim that many of the alleged settlers are in fact "seasonal workers" or returning Turkish Cypriots who emigrated earlier, in particular following intercommunal tensions between 1963 and 1974. However, according to the information received from the Statistics and Research Department, the total number of Turkish Cypriot emigrants over the period 1960-1973 amounted to 11 980 persons, so even if all Turkish Cypriots emigrants returned to Cyprus after 1974 (which seems to be highly unlikely), they could not account for the number of settlers introduced to the occupied area of Cyprus after 1974.

28.       Finally it should be noted that a group of about 30 000 Turkish army members are present on a permanent basis in the northern part of the island. This is a very substantial figure, equivalent to some 15% of the total population of the northern part of Cyprus.

29.       On its part in the Government controlled area, as many as 4 000 soldiers and 6 000 civilians are present in the British military base.

30.       UNIFICYP continues to carry out its humanitarian assistance in support of the 428 Greek Cypriots and 165 Maronites living in the north and maintain contacts with those Turkish Cypriots in the south who have made themselves known.

3.       Attitude of the Turkish Cypriot administration

31.       Since 1974, a reduction of the Greek Cypriot population in the northern part of the island by over 99% and an increase of the Muslim population by over 200% have become a reality. This demographic transformation and homogeneity of the population has been achieved as a result of the implementation of deliberate policies.

32.       Immediately after the partition of the island, the Turkish Cypriot administration authorities evicted the whole Greek Cypriot population from the occupied area and incited about 43 000 Turkish Cypriots who were still living in the Government controlled area to move to the area under its control.

33.       Since then, the Greek Cypriots refugees have been forcibly prevented from returning to their homes by the Turkish military forces present in the northern part of the island6. Their property was initially temporarily requisitioned but in 1982, the so called "Equivalent Property Law" expressly provided that all Turkish soldiers who served in the occupied area were to be allocated Greek Cypriot land and property if they settled in Cyprus.

34.       This policy of deprivation of property has been completed by the colonisation of the home areas of Greek Cypriot refugees. In 1977 Turkey transferred Turkish settlers into the occupied territory and deported and transferred Greek Cypriots, especially from the Karpasia area.

35.       Turkish Cypriots living in the northern part are not free to move to the Government controlled area.

36.       The aim of the Turkish-Cypriot administration’s policy towards the settlers has been to promote their permanent establishment on the island. The settlers are granted housing, land or other properties on special terms. They are issued with a "concession certificate" which they are not entitled to sell or pass to a third party until a period of twenty years has elapsed.

37.       The most important measure for the settlers has been the possibility of acquiring Turkish-Cypriot nationality. In 1975, the Turkish-Cypriot administration passed Act No. 3/1975, under which nationality could be given to anyone who requested it and, in particular, to members of the Turkish armed forces who had served in Cyprus and their families.

38.       In 1981, complementary provisions were established according to which Turkish-Cypriot nationality can be granted to persons permanently resident in the northern part for at least one year, those who made or could make an important contribution to the economy, or social and cultural life, and those who have rendered services to the security forces.

39.       Along with citizenship, the settlers get a whole series of political rights including the right to vote and set up political parties.

4.       Areas of particular concern

40.       Despite the lack of consensus on the exact figures, all parties concerned admit that Turkish nationals have been arriving in the northern part of Cyprus since 1975. One party claims that they are part of a small migratory movement, seasonal workers or former inhabitants who had left the island before 1974. For the other party they constitute regular colonisation. In the Rapporteur’s opinion, the term "settlers" to describe these persons is fully justified since they actually come to settle down.

41.       Continuous arrival of the settlers from Turkey, whatever the exact number, has had a considerable impact on the demographic, social and economic structure of the Turkish Cypriot community.

42.       Change in the demographic structure of Cyprus already underway, creates a real threat that in the long-term the considerable increase in the numbers of the Turkish-speaking population might be used for a justification of the inordinate claims of the Turkish side regarding territorial arrangements and political powers in a final settlement of the Cyprus problem.

43.       The settlers come mainly from the region of Anatolia, one of the poorest regions in Turkey.7 They have not at all, or very low professional skills and their customs and traditions differ in a significant way from those in Cyprus. These differences are the main reason for the tensions and dissatisfaction of the indigenous Turkish Cypriot population who tend to view them as a foreign element.

44.       The presence of the settlers constitutes an additional and important obstacle to a peaceful negotiated solution of the Cyprus problem. A particularly serious problem is caused by the "naturalisation" of the settlers.

45.       Furthermore, the economic situation in the north of the island has deteriorated recently following the problems in Turkey itself. Turkey has long given financial support to northern Cyprus. In 2001, Ankara unveiled a 350$ million three-year aid package to boost the economy, which has struggled ever since an international embargo was imposed in 1974. The package was accompanied by rhetoric about closer co-operation and integration between Ankara and northern Cyprus, particularly if the EU accepts the internationally recognized Republic of Cyprus as a new member.

46.       The settlers are accused by the indigenous population of being cheap labour force.

47.       The question of the refugees’ property, in particular abandoned houses, creates another problem in the area of human rights. In 1996 the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Turkey had violated property rights by denying the applicant's access to her property in the Turkish occupied part of Cyprus. (Loizidou v. Turkey).

48.       The Turkish Cypriot owned property is temporarily requisitioned and held in trust for their owners. The Central Committee for the Protection of Turkish Cypriot Properties acts as custodian of such property. Some properties have been temporarily allocated to Greek Cypriot refugees. The Turkish Cypriots have the right to enjoyment of their properties in the free areas of the Republic, whenever they wish to do so.

49.       The treatment of the Greek Cypriots living in the northern part of Cyprus, and in particular reported cases of intimidation and violation, also give rise to concern.

50.       The Rapporteur notes with regret that, since the last report on the subject, there has been no progress towards the demographic stabilization on the island – to the contrary. The recommendation which was adopted by the Assembly in 1992 instructed the European Population Committee of the Council of Europe to conduct a census of the island’s population, in co-operation with the authorities concerned, in order to replace population estimates with reliable data. It also requested the authorities of the Republic of Cyprus and the Turkish-Cypriot administration not to change the demographic structure of the island and to keep the arrival of aliens under control. Neither of these recommendations has been accomplished. This is reflected in the reply by the Committee of Ministers of 1997 (Doc. 7954) five years after the adoption of the recommendation.

51.       The visit by the Rapporteur to the Government controlled part of the island confirmed that the colonisation of the occupied part of Cyprus has not been stopped. In the Rapporteur’s opinion, the most serious problem is created by their naturalization. The so-called 1975 Act on naturalization and the 1981 rules passed by the Turkish Cypriot Administration show clearly the deliberate policy of changing the demographic structure of the northern part of the island.

52.       The Rapporteur is convinced that the presence and naturalisation of the settlers constitutes a barrier to a peaceful negotiated solution of the Cypriot conflict.

5.       Prospects for the future

53.       It is clear that no solution to the demographic problem will be found if no progress is made towards a political settlement of the dispute. Conversely, humanitarian issues, and in particular, the demographic structure, constitute substantial stumbling blocks to a political solution. The aim of the present report is to give an objective account of the recent developments in the field of demography in the island and thus, hopefully, make a contribution, however modest, to the efforts of all those who try to solve the Cypriot conflict through dialogue.

54.       The prospects of EU expansion have forced both parties and the international community to search for a peace settlement. The "proximity talks" carried out under the auspices of the United Nations continued throughout 2002, and the Secretary General of the UN, Kofi Annan presented a peace plan in November 2002. Under the UN plan, the island was to be reunited as a single state with two federal regions linked by a weak central government. The demographic questions were referred to by the provisions concerning the Cypriot citizenship and naturalization. Single Cypriot citizenship was foreseen, and it was to be granted, inter alia, to any person who held Cypriot citizenship in 1960 and his or her descendants, and to those who resided in Cyprus for at lest seven years. Naturalization was to be accessible for those who enjoyed permanent residence in Cyprus for at least seven consecutive years, including no less than four years after entry into force of the Agreement, before entering the request. The plan also required the Turkish Cypriot administration to secede some territory and permit the return of some Greek Cypriot refugees, return of their property, and compensations for those who will not return. Despite the sides’ failure to agree on it by the following month, the Copenhagen EU summit gave Cyprus the green light to join in 2004. Both leaders resumed talks on the UN plan hoping to reach compromise before the UN deadline of 28 February, extended to 10 March 2003, set by the UN for a political settlement. The Turkish Cypriot leaders were under strong pressure from their community which demands acceptance of the peace deal, which would help end their economic isolation. On 14 January 2003, 50 000 Turkish Cypriots held a rally in this respect. On the other hand, the forthcoming presidential election in the Government controlled area put Mr Clerides in a more difficult position regarding his room for manoeuvre in the negotiations. Unfortunately, the efforts did not reach a settlement. Although this failure will not influence Cyprus' accession to the EU foreseen for 1 May 2004, it leaves the problem open and all concerns expressed in this report will continue to exist.

55.       Obviously, the possible compromise on the political solution would completely change the context of the demographic problem. Therefore, the Rapporteur hopes that the negotiations will be resumed and the final lasting political settlement will be achieved..

56.       The Rapporteur believes that, whatever the result of the negotiations, the Council of Europe as a pan-European organisation which has among its members all parties to the conflict, has a role to play in the reconciliation process.

APPENDIX 1

PROGRAMME

of the visit to Cyprus 7-8 March 2001 of Mr Jaakko LAAKSO, Rapporteur of the Committee on Migration, Refugees and Demography of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, on the colonisation by Turkish settlers of the occupied part of Cyprus

Arrivals        Mr J. Laakso       Mrs A. Nachilo

Departures       Mr J. Laakso       Mrs A. Nachilo

Stay       The Hilton Hotel

Monday, 5 March 2001

11.55       Arrival of Mr Laakso at Larnaka Airport and transfer to the hotel in Nicosia

18.00       The Attorney General of the Republic,

Wednesday, 7 March 2001

08.15       H.E. The President of the Republic,

09.00       The Deputy Chairman of the Democratic Rally Party,

10.00       The Chairman of the Social Democratic Movement,

10.45       The Chairman of the Democratic Party,

13.00       Lunch

15.00       Meeting with the members of the Cyprus delegation to the PACE, at the House of Representatives

16.00       The Director of the Statistical Service,

20.30       Dinner hosted by Mr Doros Christodoulides, M.P., Member of the Committee on Migration, Refugees and Demography,

Thursday, 8 March 2001

08.45       H.E. The President of the House of Representatives,

09.45       H.E. The Minister of Foreign Affairs,

12.00       The Secretary General of the AKEL Party,

13.00       Lunch hosted by the Secretary General of the AKEL Party,

17.00       Visit to the House of Representatives to attend part of the proceedings of the Plenary Session

APPENDIX 2

PROGRAMME

of the visit to Cyprus 28-30 October 2002 of Mr Jaakko LAAKSO, Rapporteur of the Committee on Migration, Refugees and Demography of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, on the colonisation by Turkish settlers of the occupied part of Cyprus

Arrivals        Mr J. Laakso       Mrs A. Nachilo

Departures       Mr J. Laakso       Mrs A. Nachilo

Stay       The Hilton Hotel, Nicosia

Tuesday, 29 October 2002

09.00       The Chairman of the Democratic Rally Party

10.00       H.E. The President of the House of Representatives,

11.00       The Honorary Chairman of the Social Democratic Movement,

Noon       Lunch at hotel

15.15       The Acting Special Representative of the U.N. Secretary General and Chief of the Mission of the United Nations Operation in Cyprus,

16.15       The Chairman of the Democratic Party,

20.30       Dinner hosted by Members of the Cyprus Delegation to PACE,

Wednesday, 30 October 2002

08.30       The Parliamentary Spokesman of the AKEL Party,

09.30       The Attorney General of the Republic,

10.30       The Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,

11.30       Meeting with the Director of the Statistical Service,

12.30       Working lunch wit the Members of the Cyprus Delegation to PACE

16.30-17.00       H.E. The President of the Republic,

APPENDIX 3

Table 1

Population by Ethnic Groups at the 1960 and 1973 Census

 

1960

Number

(Census)

%

1973

Number

(Census)

%

Greek Cypriot Community8

447.901

78,20

498.511

78,9

Turkish Cypriot Community

103.822

18,13

116.000

18,4

Others

20.984

3,66

17.267

2,7

Total

572.707

100,00

631.778

100,00

Sources:        Census of Population and Agriculture 1960, Vol. 1, Population by Location, Race and Sex, Demographic Report 1987, Department of Statistics and Research

Table 2

Population of Cyprus at Censuses and Mid-year, 1974-89

(in thousands)

 

Total

Greek Cypriot Community

Turkish Cypriot Community

Others

1974

641

506

118

17

1975

613

495

115

3

1976

613

495

115

3

1982

643

515

120

8

1984

657

526

123

8

1985

665

533

124

8

1986

673

539

125

9

1987

680

545

127

9

1988

687

550

129

9

1989

695

556

130

9

Source: Demographic Report 1989, Department of Statistics and Research

Table 3

Population of Turkish Cypriots prior to 1974 and population in the Turkish occupied area after 1974

Year

Population9

Numerical increase

Annual rate of growth (%)10

1960 (December)

104.320

   

1972

112.234

7.914

0,6

1975 (March)

114.744

2.510

1,0

1975 (October)

126.949

12.205

18,9

1976

130.136

3.187

2,1

1977

145.000

14.864

11,4

1978 (April)

146.740

1.740

3,6

1979

148.501

1.761

0,7

1980

149.610

1.109

0,7

1981

151.233

1.623

1,1

1982

153.239

2.006

1,3

1983

155.521

2.282

1,5

1984

157.984

2.463

1,6

1985

160.287

2.303

1,5

1986

162.676

2.389

1,5

1987

165.035

2.359

1,5

1988

167.256

2.221

1,3

1989

169.272

2.016

1,2

1990

171.469

2.197

1,3

1991

173.757

2.288

1,3

1992

175.118

1.361

0,8

1993

177.120

2.002

1,1

1994

179.208

2.088

1,2

1996 (15 December)

198.215

19.007

5,1

Sources:        "Census of Population and Agriculture 1960, Volume III: Demographic Characteristics" Republic of Cyprus

"Demographic Report 1980" of the "Turkish Federated State of Kibris"

"Statistical Yearbooks" for the years 1978-1981 of the "Turkish Federated State of Kibris"

"Statistical Yearbooks" for the years 1982-1994 of the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" 11

Newspaper "Kibris" of 27.12.1996 giving the provisional Population Census results of 15 December 1996.

Table 4

Estimate of the number of settlers in the Turkish occupied area, 1974-1996

Year

Net migration

Natural increase rate per

(a)

Natural increase

(b)

Population of settlers in the end

(c)

1974

1975(d)

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980(d)

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985(d)

1986

1987

1988(d)

1989(d)

1990(d)

1991(d)

1922(d)

1993

1994

1995

1996

1.380

22.366

3.093

10.874

1.610

2.159

1.081

– 1.253

– 1.148

2.263

2.930

944

237

– 4.514

3.850

4.729

1.505

609

1.133

210

3.736

24,1

22,7

22,2

22,2

22,2

22,2

22,1

22,5

22,1

21,6

21,1

21,5

18,9

21,4

22,0

21,9

17,4

17,4

17,0

16,6

16,2

15,8

15,8

0

31

528

608

863

918

982

1.046

1.023

997

1.043

1.148

1.049

1.215

1.176

1.281

1.122

1.168

1.172

1.182

1.176

1.225

1.244

1.380

23.777

27.398

38.880

41.354

44.431

46.494

46.287

46.162

49.422

53.394

55.486

56.772

53.473

58.499

64.510

67.137

68.914

71.219

72.611

77.523

78.748

79.992

(a)       Source: Council of Europe "Recent Demographic Developments in Europe" 1996 and previous issues.

(b)       Calculated by applying the natural increase to the population at the end of the previous year.

(c)       Calculated by adding to the population at the end of the previous year the net migration and natural increase of the year.

(d)       Revised figures of natural increase.

Source:       Department of Statistics and Research, Ministry of Finance, Republic of Cyprus.

APPENDIX 4

List of settlers’ places of origin

1.

ADANA

34.

HATAY

2.

ADIYAMAN

35.

K.MARAS

3.

AGRI

36.

KAGIZMAN

4.

AKKUS

37.

KADIRLI

5.

ALANICI

38.

KARS

6.

ALASEHIR

39.

KAYSERI

7.

ANAMUR

40.

KONAKPINAR

8.

ANDIRIN

41.

KUMSAL

9.

ANKARA

42.

KURTULUS

10.

ANTAKYA

43.

KILIS

11.

ANTALYA

44.

MACKA

12.

ARAKLI

45.

MERSIN

13.

BOZDAG

46.

MUS

14.

BULANIK

47.

NIZIP

15.

BULGARISTAN

48.

OGUZELI

16.

BURSA

49.

OSMANIYE

17.

CANAKKALE

50.

PAZARCIK

18.

CARSAMBA

51.

REYHANLI

19.

CAYKARA

52.

SAKARYA

20.

CORUM

53.

SAMSUN

21.

DENIZLI

54.

SAIMBEYLI

22.

DIYARBAKIR

55.

SURMENE

23.

DIZDARKOY

56.

SIVAS

24.

ELBISTAN

57.

TARSUS

25.

ELESKIRT

58.

TOKAT

26.

ERBAA

59.

TRABZON

27.

ERZURUM

60.

TURKOGLU

28.

ESKISEHIR

61.

TURKIYE

29.

FEKE

62.

URFA

30.

FURUNLU

63.

YOZGAT

31.

G.ANTEP

64.

ISKENDERUN

32.

GAZIANTEP

65.

ISTANBUL

33.

GULNAR

66.

IZMIR

Source:       Government of Cyprus.

APPENDIX 5

Estimates of Turkish Cypriots and settlers

Population in Turkish occupied area

(according to the "Turkish Cypriot Administration")

1996

          200.587

 

1997

          203.046

 

1998

          205.398

 

1999

          207.732

 

2000

          210.047

     

Estimate of the Statistical Service of Cyprus

2001

          212.500

     

Estimate of Turkish Cypriots

2001

          87.600

     

Settlers and others in occupied area (by subtraction)

 

          124.900

     

Estimate of settlers

2001

          115.000

     

Enclaved

 

          600

Other foreigners (mainly students)

 

          9.300

October 2002

Source:       Statistical Service of Cyprus.

APPENDIX 6

DISSENTING OPINION OF MR. MEVLÜT ÇAVUŞOĞLU,

TURKISH MEMBER OF THE COMMITTEE ON MIGRATION, REFUGEES AND DEMOGRAPHY

CONCERNING

THE PRELIMINARY DRAFT RECOMMENDATION ON THE DEMOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE OF CYPRUS

PREPARED BY RAPPORTEUR JAAKKO LAAKSO

As a member of this Committee, I would like to express my position and that of the Turkish Cypriot delegation in presenting a dissenting opinion as an attachment to the report concerning the demographic structure of Cyprus prepared by Rapporteur Mr. Laakso.

One should recall from the very beginning that we, together with the Turkish Cypriot delegation had strongly rejected the title of the report, which is prejudicial, biased, and unsubstantiated.

I find it rather strange and unacceptable that the Rapporteur, despite each and every call to him, decided to use a title that is in total disregard of the sensitivities, facts and truths on the issue.

It is more than obvious that migration of labour and immigration in general are international phenomena affecting all countries. No country is immune to this issue. However, there is no way or ground to exploit it. Furthermore, it is curious how a worker is called as a "settler" when his or her aim is to work.

I am here quoting from the views of the Turkish Cypriot side on the draft report in question:

"Further to our letter of 1 November 2002, addressed by the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), Dr. Vehbi Zeki Serter, to Mr. Jaakko Laakso regarding the latter’s memorandum on the demographic structure of Northern Cyprus (AS/Mig (2002) 34 of 20 September 2002), we wish to express the position of the Turkish Cypriot side with respect to Mr. Laakso’s preliminary draft recommendation of 19 March 2003. One should recall from the very beginning that the Turkish Cypriot side had strongly objected to the title of the report, which does not meet the required criteria of impartiality and equal treatment of the two sides to the Cyprus issue.

It is noteworthy that at the end of para. 3 of the memorandum (which has been revised and re-circulated as Document AS/Mig (2003) 05 rev.) the following is noted with regard to the controversy over the title: "After having examined the subject the Rapporteur has decided not to modify the title, which, in his opinion is justified by the facts." This indicates that before having come to Cyprus and before having investigated the facts, Mr. Laakso had already formed his opinion, apparently based on preconceived ideas and views.

Having disregarded the views and sensitivities of the Turkish Cypriot side, the Rapporteur chose to go along with the same title and after having visited Southern Cyprus, presented the abovementioned memorandum and preliminary draft recommendation to the Committee. As stated by the Turkish Cypriot delegation during the Committee meeting held in Strasbourg on 24 September 2002, in the opinion of the Turkish Cypriot side Mr. Laakso had not acted with impartiality.

The allegations contained in the said preliminary draft recommendation regarding the demographic structure of "Cyprus" reflect the Greek Cypriot point of view. Similar allegations made by the Greek Cypriots constitute only one aspect of their ongoing campaign of disinformation and propaganda aimed at distorting the realities in Cyprus. It is true that a limited number of workers arrived from Turkey after 1974. This is due to the fact that after security was established in 1974, the new economic activity in Northern Cyprus aimed at reforming the economic infrastructure, created opportunities and the demand for greater manpower. A number of workers came from Turkey to work in the agricultural, industrial, tourism and construction sectors, and also from other countries, as a necessary measure to help the Turkish Cypriots in their economic development efforts. Given the economic need to import labour, it is only natural, in view of geographic proximity, and for reasons of historical, cultural and social affinity, that such labour came mainly from Turkey. Some of these people have gained TRNC citizenship after five years of residence, in accordance with the relevant legislation in the TRNC, which in fact is similar to the relevant legislation in Southern Cyprus.

The reference in para. 2 of the preliminary draft recommendation "that the demographic structure of the island has been continuously modified since the de facto partition of the island 1974" is indeed true, but the reality of the matter is that this modification is a result of the policies of the Greek Cypriot administration. It is important to note that the number of Turkish nationals who have settled in the north is nowhere near the thousands of Greek mainlanders who have been settled in Cyprus over the years, and thousands of immigrants mainly from Lebanon, the Russian Federation, Serbia and other countries who have come to Southern Cyprus since 1974. In any case the number of Turkish nationals residing in the TRNC is nowhere near the cited figure of 115,000 (figures from the latest official census of 15 December 1996 is provided below). According to Mr. Fluckiger’s Report on the issue to the Assembly (AS/PR (41) 19, dated 9 November 1989), there are still around 30,000 Lebanese living in Southern Cyprus, an estimate he bases on data provided by international humanitarian organizations. Other estimates indicate that the number of Lebanese alone living and working in the South is not less that 60,000. It should also be noted that there are currently 24,000 British citizens also residing in Southern Cyprus.

The claim that the Turkish Cypriot population was 87,600 in 2001 is far from the truth. According to the latest official census of 15 December 1996, the population of the TRNC is 200,587 and the annual growth rate is 1.7. This figure includes 11,925 persons with permanent residences abroad. 82.5% of this population are TRNC citizens (164,460 persons), 15% (30,702 persons) Turkish citizens and the remaining 3% of other nationalities. Of the 15% Turkish citizens who number 30,702, 27% (8,287) are students studying at various universities in the TRNC, 42% (12,922) are workers, and another 26% are businessmen or retirees who have settled in the TRNC.

As regards paras. 5 and 7 iv. and in particular the reference in the former paragraph that the "Assembly condemns the policy of naturalization", it hardly needs to be stressed that migration of labour and immigration in general are international phenomena affecting all countries including Northern Cyprus. It is only natural that the TRNC, like any other country, should regulate labour movement in accordance with its own economic requirements. In this connection, a limited number of workers arrived from Turkey as a result and within the framework of the Labour Exchange Agreement between the Republic of Turkey and the TRNC. As already stated, it is only natural, in view of geographic proximity, and for reasons of historical, cultural and social affinity, that such labour came from Turkey. Southern Cyprus is not also immune to the problem of labour shortage. The Greek Cypriot administration also has to import foreign workers into its workforce in order to meet the demands of the employment gap. It is curious how a worker happens to be a "citizen" when he thus enters the South, but a "settler" if he happens to enter the North. Even according to the Greek Cypriot press there are up to 40-50,000 foreigners permanently resident in Southern Cyprus. Some of these are Greek military personnel given Greek Cypriot citizenship, others are naturalized persons, foreign residents, foreign workers with resident permits and illegal workers. One report quotes that figure to be around 40,000; 10,000 of which are illegally employed (figures released by the Greek Cypriot Immigration Department, Cyprus Weekly, January 24-30 1997).

It should be pointed out in connection with para. 6 that the so-called issue of "settlers" is an artificial issue put forward by the Greek Cypriot side in order to divert attention from the true nature of the Cyprus question which is the hijacking of the title of the "government of the Republic of Cyprus". In fact the insurmountable obstacle in front of a negotiated settlement of the Cyprus issue is the 40-year-old usurpation and occupation by the Greek Cypriot side of the seat of government of the once bi-national Republic of Cyprus. Moreover, by concocting artificial issues as such and consequently claiming that there is "a process of hidden colonization in Northern Cyprus", the Greek Cypriot administration thereby purports to put political pressure on the TRNC and Turkey.

As for the call in para. 7 i. for the conducting of an island-wide census, it must be emphasized that the Turkish Cypriot people have been ruling themselves since 1963 when they were ousted by force of arms from the partnership Republic by the Greek Cypriot co-partner. Turkish Cypriots had no choice but to establish their own administration and State. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) is an independent country, which has an effectively functioning, democratically elected government, a democratically elected legislature, an independent judiciary and all other institutions of statehood. Therefore, the Turkish Cypriot authorities have the competence and all the means to conduct their own census themselves. The results of the latest official census, which was held on 15 December 1996 in the TRNC, are reliable and provide us with the actual population structure of the Northern Cyprus.

It must be underlined that paras. 7 ii. and iii. of the preliminary draft recommendation are unacceptable.

It is regrettable that the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights referred to in para. 7 v., do not take into account the realities and legality in Cyprus, and are based on political considerations. The said decisions ignore the fact that the two parties in Cyprus have been separated by a "green line" since 1963 and by a cease-fire arrangement since 1974, reached under the auspices of the UN. Furthermore, these rulings disregard the fact that an internationally recognized buffer zone, under the control of the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), has been established between the respective territories of the TRNC and the Greek Cypriot administration. The said decisions also disregard the reality that the voluntary regrouping of the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot populations under the Exchange of Populations Agreement in 1975, took place upon the consent of both parties, with the assistance of the UN. Combined with the established parameter of bi-zonality, which has now assumed a two-State nature, it presupposes the settlement of reciprocal property claims through global exchange and/or compensation."

Bearing in mind that the Cyprus issue is a very complicated one, it is necessary to approach it cautiously. All concerned parties should refrain from any action that may be prejudicial to one side. I believe that the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe should also refrain from any action that would jeopardize the impartiality of the Assembly’s work. And I want to believe that it is not the wish of our Assembly and it does not wish to make the Cyprus issue even more complicated by one-sided reports.

With these thoughts in mind, I am submitting the "dissenting opinion" which also reflects the views of the Turkish Cypriot parliamentarians.

Strasbourg, 31 March 2003

APPENDIX 7

DISSENTING OPINION OF MR. MEHMET TEKELİOĞLU,

TURKISH MEMBER OF THE COMMITTEE ON MIGRATION, REFUGEES AND DEMOGRAPHY

CONCERNING

THE PRELIMINARY DRAFT RECOMMENDATION ON THE DEMOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE OF CYPRUS

PREPARED BY RAPPORTEUR Mr JAAKKO LAAKSO

As a member of this Committee, I would like to express my position in presenting a dissenting opinion as an attachment to the report concerning the demographic structure of Cyprus prepared by Rapporteur Mr. Laakso.

The report in question contains unfounded allegations. It lacks fairness. It lacks impartiality. It contains prejudicial data on the demographic structure of the island, which is designed to mislead world public opinion.

It is impossible to consider this report as unbiased or fair. When one just looks at the title of the report itself, it is sufficient to comprehend that the point where the report attempts to reach as a conclusion, had apparently been contemplated since the beginning, even before having made any objective and credible investigation. The Rapporteur, having pretended as if he himself has conducted sufficient contacts with the Turkish authorities, has ventured to make a serious judgement in paragraph 3 to the effect that "the settlers come mainly from the region of Anatolia, one of the less developed regions in Turkey. Their customs and traditions differ in a significant way from those in Cyprus." What are the scientific evidences to support this conclusion? Is it fair to conclude as such without thorough research?

Unfortunately, the same paragraph attempted to make a further judgement that entirely reveals the personal view of its author. Whose judgement is it to say that "the presence of the Turkish nationals and differences are the main reason for the dissatisfaction of the Turkish Cypriot population?" This is an irrelevant and unsubstantiated argument. In each and every society, there are diverging views and opinions. But, if each diverging view is generalised for the whole society, it would be a mistake. Consequently, I do not think that this is the right approach to follow if one claims to prepare an objective report. It seems that this paragraph attempts to make a personal judgement rather than a reflection.

On the other hand, using a term "settlers" is a discriminatory approach and almost a "racist" position, which attempts to degrade one part of the Turkish Cypriot population. It is unacceptable.

The present report is devoid of any justification or truth. Furthermore, it also lacks an aim. It is obvious that the draft report will not help and contribute to the ongoing efforts to bring peace and stability to the Island.

Therefore, I object to the report.

Strasbourg,

31 March 2003

Reporting Committee: Committee on Migration, Refugees and Demography.

Reference to committee: Doc. 8711, Ref. 2499, 16.5.2000, extended to 16.5.2003.

Draft recommendation adopted by the Committee on 1st April 2003 with 34 votes in favour, 3 votes against and 1 abstention.

Members of the Committee: Mr Iwiński (Chairperson), Mr Einarsson (1st Vice-Chairperson), Mrs Bušić (2nd Vice-Chairperson), Mrs de Zulueta (3rd Vice-Chairperson), Mrs Akgün, MM. Akhvlediani, Aliyev G., Arabadjiev, de Arístegui (alternate: Mrs Torrado), Arzilli, Bernik, Van den Brande, Branger, Braun, Brînzan, Brunhart, Cabrnoch, Çavusoğlu, Christodoulides, Cilevičs, Çörüz, Danieli, Debarge (alternate: Evin), Dmitrijevas, Dokle, Donabauer, Dubié, Mrs Err, Mrs Filipiová, Mr Freiherr von und zu Guttenberg, Mrs Frimannsdóttir, MM. Grzesik, Grzyb, Gülçiçek, Hagberg, Hancock, Higgins, Mrs Hoffmann, MM. Hovhannisyan, Ilaşcu, Ivanov, Lord Judd, Mr Karpov, Mrs Kósá-Kovács, MM. Koulouris, Kulikov, Kvakkestad, Laakso, Le Guen, Liapis, Loutfi, Matviychuk, Mrs Nabhoz-Haidegger, MM. Naro, Nasufi, Nessa, Popa, Prijmireanu, Puche (alternate: Fernández Aguilar), Pullicino Orlando, Raguž, Rakhansky, Reymann, Mrs Shakhtakhtinskaya, MM. Slutsky (alternate: Fedorov), Soendergaard, Mrs Stoisits, MM. Stübgen, Tekelioğlu, Tkáč, Vera Jardim, Mrs Vermot-Mangold, MM. Vieira, Wilkinson, Wray, Yáñez-Barnuevo (alternate: Agramunt), Zavgayev, Zhirinovsky (alternate: Mrs Gamzatova), Mrs Zwerver.

N.B. The names of those members present at the meeting are printed in italics.

Secretariat of the committee: Mr Lervik, Mrs Nachilo, Mrs Sirtori-Milner


1 See Doc 6589, Recommendation 1197 (1992), Rapporteur Mr Cucó, Spain.

2 See Resolution 1267 (2002), Doc. 9302.

3 The developments which had led to the Turkish military intervention in 1974 are exhaustively described in Doc. 6589.

4 Based on the terms of the 1960 Constitution, small religious minorities of Maronites, Armenians and Latins opted to be classified demographically within the Greek Cypriot community.

5 It should be noted that as a result of the Turkish invasion, the total population declined considerably, and only in 1982 exceeded the figure from 1974.

6 See European Commission of Human Rights, May 1976, March 1983 and 4 March 1991.

7 The Government sources have provided the Rapporteur with a list of 66 places of origin of the settlers (see Appendix 4).

8 Based on the terms of the 1960 Constitution, small religious minorities of Maronites, Armenians, and Latins opted to be classified demographically within the Greek Cypriot Community. They are hence presented as one total.

9 All population figures (except 1960) are extracted from Turkish Cypriot publications. Whenever revisions were made the most recently revised data have been used. For 1960, Turkish Cypriot publications give the figure of 104.942 which is in fact the number of Moslems.

10 Mean annula rate of population growth calculated on the assumption that the growth population's rate has not been changed after 1974.

11 This reference to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus does not imply any recognition by the Rapporteur. The only state recognised by the Council of Europe is the Republic of Cyprus.