6 January 1994

Doc. 7207

1403-19/12/94-1-E

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS

on the twelfth partial triennial renewal

of the European Court of Human Rights1

(Articles 38 to 40 of the Convention for the Protection

of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms)


Letter from the Secretary General to the President

of the Assembly, dated 22 November 1994

Sir,

      The term of office of Mr Jose Maria Morenilla Rodriguez, judge of the European Court of Human Rights in respect of Spain, will expire on 20 January 1995. It is therefore necessary to proceed to the election of a judge of the Court in respect of this country.

      Article 39, paragraph 1, of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms provides as follows: "The members of the Court shall be elected by the Assembly by a majority of the votes cast from a list of persons nominated by the Members of the Council of Europe; each Member shall nominate three candidates of whom two at least shall be its nationals."

      The list of candidates drawn up by the Committee of Ministers at the 520th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies (November 1994) on the basis of nominations made by the Government of Spain is as follows:

1.       Mr José Maria Morenilla Rodriguez

2.       Mr Leopoldo Torres Boursault

3.       Mr Claudio Movilla Alvarez

      The biographical notes of the candidates are appended to this letter.2

      It should be noted that "Members of the Court are elected for a period of nine years" (Article 40, paragraph 1, of the European Convention on Human Rights). The term of office of the judge to be elected will therefore expire on 20 January 2004. However, Article 5, paragraph 1, of Protocol No. 11 which states that "the terms of office of the judges ... shall expire at the date of entry into force of this Protocol" must also be taken into account.

      Please accept, Sir, the assurance of my high consideration.

Signed: Daniel Tarschys

Letter from the Secretary General to the President

of the Assembly, dated 15 December 1994

Sir,

      The terms of office of the judges of the European Court of Human Rights in respect of Austria, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and Turkey will expire on 20 January 1995. It is therefore necessary to proceed to the elections of judges of the Court in respect of these countries.

      Article 39, paragraph 1, of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms provides as follows: "The members of the Court shall be elected by the Assembly by a majority of the votes cast from a list of persons nominated by the Members of the Council of Europe; each Member shall nominate three candidates of whom two at least shall be its nationals."

      It should be noted that "Members of the Court are elected for a period of nine years" (Article 40, paragraph 1, of the European Convention on Human Rights). The mandate of the judge to be elected will therefore expire on 20 January 2004.

      The Committee of Ministers kept in mind the contents of the relevant texts adopted by the Assembly (Resolution 655 and Recommendation 809) when examining the candidatures, but also took into account the fact that Article 5, paragraph 1, of Protocol No. 11 states that "the terms of office of the judges ... shall expire at the date of entry into force of this Protocol".

      The lists of candidates drawn up by the Committee of Ministers at the 522nd meeting of the Ministers' Deputies (December 1994), on the basis of nominations made by the Governments of Austria, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and Turkey are as follows:

Austria

1.       Mr Franz Matscher

2.       Mr Theodor Öhlinger

3.       Mr Wolfram Karl

Luxembourg

1.       Mr Alphonse Spielmann

2.       Mr Guy Reiland

3.       Mr Marc Mathékowitsch

Netherlands

1.       Mr Sibrand Karel Martens

2.       Mr Hubertus Leonardus Joannes Roelvink

3.       Mr Richard Hermann

Norway

1.       Mr Rolv Ryssdal

2.       Mr Trond Dolva

3.       Mr Jan Helgesen

Portugal

1.       Mr Manuel António Lopes Rocha

2.       Mr José António da Rosa Dias Bravo

3.       Mr Armando Acácio Gomes Leandro

Turkey

1.       Mr Feyyaz Gölcüklü

2.       Mr Ergun Özbudun

3.       Mr Hüseyin Pazarci

      The biographical notes of the candidates are appended to this letter.3

      However, I should like to take this opportunity to say how much I regret that there are no women candidates amongst the eighteen people in the lists submitted to the Assembly. In the same way as the Committee of Ministers has requested in its Recommendation No. R (81) 6, I also hope that in the future it will be possible to ensure a more balanced representation between men and women in the European Court of Human Rights, in the spirit of true and equal democracy.

      To this end, I should like to inform you of my intention, as Secretary General, to draw the attention of member states to this problem.

      I also consider it important that this question be brought to the attention of parliamentarians in the different national assemblies.

      Please accept, Sir, the assurance of my high consideration.

Signed: Daniel Tarschys

APPENDIX I

Austria

Franz Matscher

Born in Merano (Italy) on 19 January 1928, of Austrian nationality; eight years of Italian schooling; university studies (law, languages) at the University of Graz (Austria), Doctorate of Law in 1951.

1951:       Practical year at the Graz Court of Appeal.

1953:       University doctorate (private international law and comparative law), interpreter diplomas (Italian, Spanish) at Paris University.

1953-70:       Diplomatic service (legal and political department of the Foreign Ministry; private office of the Secretary General for Foreign Affairs; Embassy Secretary in Paris and Madrid; Embassy Adviser in Bonn; Consul General in Milan; member of Austrian delegations for bilateral and multilateral negotiations; member of the Austrian delegation to the United Nations General Assembly in 1962 and 1963.

1966:       Aggregation in law of civil procedure.

1967:       Called to the University of Salzburg.

1970:       Chair of Law of Civil Procedure and Comparative Law; Director of Institute of Law of Civil Procedure and Comparative Law at the University of Salzburg.

1971-72:       Dean of the Law Faculty, Salzburg.

1974-75:       Rector of Salzburg University.

1975-76:       Deputy Chairman of the Austrian Rectors Conference.

Teaching assignments at Innsbruck University and Vienna Diplomatic Academy (comparative, private and commercial law and civil procedure).

Lectures in Strasbourg, Brussels, Munich, Freibourg, Regensbourg, Wurzbourg, Bonn, Cologne, Lübeck, Zurich, Warsaw, Poznan, Milan, Triest, Bologna, Rome, Madrid, Prague, Ljubljana, The Hague.

Visiting professor in Bologna.

Since 1975, experience in national and international arbitration as member or chairman of the arbitration tribunals; several publications in the field of international arbitration.

Since 1977, judge at the European Court of Human Rights (Strasbourg).

Since 1986, Vice-Chairman of the Commission on European Law and Private International Law, Academy of Sciences (Vienna).

Since 1987, Director of the Austrian Institute of Human Rights (Salzburg).

In 1988, elected member of the Academy of Sciences (Vienna).

In 1988, appointed member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (The Hague).

In 1993, appointed member of the Institute of International Law.

Main areas of research: private law, commercial law, national and international civil procedure (conflict of laws), comparative law, international law' numerous publications on these subjects in German, Italian and French.

Languages: German, Italian, French, Spanish, English.

Activities relating to the protection of human rights

      —Si       nce 1977, judge at the European Court of Human Rights; in this capacity, participation in some 200 judgments.—

      —Si       nce 1987, Director of the Austrian Institute for Human Rights in Salzburg.—

      —Si       nce 1988, Austrian national correspondent to the Council of Europe on matters concerning the protection of human rights. —

      —Or       ganisation of a series of colloquies at the Institute, in conjunction with the Council of Europe, and the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Home Affairs and Justice.—

      —Ra       pporteur for the Bureau of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe on the legal situation in the Republic of Slovenia (1992), the Czech Republic (1993) and Croatia (1994.—

      —Au       thor of numerous publications and co-editor of larger works on the protection of human rights. —

      —Le       ctures in several European cities on a variety of aspects of the European Convention on Human Rights.—

      —Jo       int editor of the "Newsletter" (six numbers a year) devoted above all to information on national and international aspects of the protection of human rights. —

      —Sc       heduled for 1997: Series of lectures at the Academy of International Law in The Hague on "The European Court of Human Rights 30 years on".Th

Theodor Öhlinger

Born 22 June 1939 in Ried (Innkreis) Upper Austria.

1958-62:       Studies in philosophy and literature.

1962-66:       Studies in law and government science, both at the University of Vienna and Innsbruck. Studies abroad in Perugia and London.

1966:       Doctor of Law (University of Innsbruck).

1967-70:       Federal Chancellory, Department of Constitutional Affairs.

1970-73:       Assistant at the Department of Political Science and Administrative Law at the University of Innsbruck.

January 1973: "Venia docendi" ("Habitation") for Constitutional and Administrative Law.

August 1973:       Associate Professor and Head of the Division of European Law at the Institute of Political Science and Public Law at the University of Innsbruck.

May 1974:       Full Professor for Constitutional and Administrative Law at the University of Vienna.

1978-89:       Deputy Member of the Austrian Constitutional Court.

1984-90:       Member of the Committee of Independent Experts of the European Social Charter.

April 1989:       Director of the Austrian Federal Academy of Public Administration.

Wolfram Karl

Date of birth:       6 May 1941.

Nationality:       Austrian.

Marital status:       Married, three children.

Degrees:       Doctor of Law (Vienna 1964); LL.M. (Cambridge 1967); "Habilitation" (Salzbourg, 1981)

Current appointments: Head of Department and of Human Rights Section; Deputy Director of Austrian Human Rights Institute (Salzburg).

Practical activities:       Member of Legal Working Group of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (1994); CSCE observer mission to Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova (March 1992); United Nations fact-finding missions (in 1985 and 1988) to Iranian and Iraqi prisoner-of-war camps; member of Austrian Unesco Commission; alternate delegate to the United Nations Human Rights Commission in 1989 and 1990; interim head of Human Rights Division in Austrian Foreign Office (1988-89); occasional legal advisor to Austrian Red Cross; legal assistant to EFTA Secretariat (Geneva) from 1969 to 1971.

Other academic activities:       Teaching international law in Salzburg from 1968 onward; visiting professor, McGeorge School of Law (Sacramento, USA/Salzburg externship) since 1984; Professor of ICRC Summer School on International Humanitarian Law (Warsaw) in 1987 and 1990; various administrative functions in University; winner of the Paul Guggenheim Award in 1983 and of one Leopold Kunschak Award in 1984.

Publications:       Monograph on "Treaty and Subsequent Practice in International Law" published by Max-Planck-Institute Heidelberg in 1983; co-editor of the "International Commentary to the ECHR" (Heymanns Verlag 1986, 1992, 1994); editor of Newsletter of Austrian Human Rights Institute; numerous articles on subjects of international law, including human rights (international procedures, minorities), state responsibility, settlement of disputes, United Nations Charter, regionalism in Europe, sources of law).

Languages:       Mother tongue German, fluent in English and French.

APPENDIX II

Luxembourg

Alphonse Spielmann

Born on 23 May 1931, in Brattert (Grand Duchy of Luxembourg).

I.       Studies and qualifications

1945-52:       Secondary education at the Lycée classique at Diekirch (Greco-Latin and Advanced Mathematics sections).

1952-53:       Advanced course (law section).

1953-57:       Study at the Law Faculty of the University of Paris and at the Paris Institute of Criminology.

June 1956:       Certificate of the University of Paris Institute of Criminology (criminological sciences section).

January 1957:        Doctorate in law (Luxembourg, International Equivalence Scheme).

June 1957:       Certificate of the University of Paris Institute of Criminology (criminal sciences section).

June 1957:       Doctorate in criminal law from the University of Paris.

May 1960:       Examination at end of probationary period (Luxembourg).

II.       National offices held

1957-60:       Pupil barrister.

December 1959:       Attaché in the Justice Department (delegate responsible for prisons).

December 1960:       Deputy to the Luxembourg Public Prosecutor.

March 1961:       Rank of judge at the Luxembourg Regional Court.

January 1968:       First Deputy to the Luxembourg Public Prosecutor.

1969-77:       Director of Public Prosecution's delegate responsible for prisons and sentence enforcement.

1972:       Avocat général (assisting the Public Prosecutor) at the Supreme Court of Justice.

1980:       Senior avocat général at the Supreme Court of Justice.

1986:       Deputy Director of Public Prosecutions.

Since 1994:       Has chaired the Ministry for Justice working group on the reform of the Luxembourg Penal Code.

1 August 1994:        Director of Public Prosecutions.

III.       International offices held

1963-85:       Member of Luxembourg's delegation to the European Committee on Crime Problems.

1968-77:       Member of the Benelux Prisons Commission.

1975-77:       Secretary General of the International Penal and Penitentiary Foundation (IPPF).

1975-80:       Member of the Bureau of the European Committee on Crime Problems.

1982-85:       Avocat général at the Benelux Court of Justice.

Since 1985:       Judge at the European Court of Human Rights.

IV.        Scientific offices

Since 1989:       Member of the scientific committee of the quarterly human rights journal "Revue trimestrielle des droits de l'homme".

Since 1990:       Member of the scientific committee of Luxembourg's public law records (Annales du droit luxembourgeois).

Since 1993:       First Vice-President of the Luxembourg Institute of Human Rights.

Since 1994:       Full member of the Luxembourg Grand Ducal Institute.

V.       Author of numerous publications.

Guy Reiland

Born on 11 May 1936, in Luxembourg.

A.       1960: degree from the Institute for Political Studies of the University of Paris (International Relations Section); 1961: Doctor of Laws; completed his training with periods of research in The Hague, London and Strasbourg.

B.       Lawyer from 1961 onwards;

      —fr       om 1962 to 1967: attached to the Ministry for the Armed Forces and Police (inter alia a member of the army reorganisation committee);—

      —fr       om 1967 to 1972: Deputy to the Luxembourg Public Prosecutor, concentrating on economic and juvenile crime cases; also simultaneously one of the Director of Public Prosecution's delegates to the prisons directorate;—

      —fr       om 1972 to 1980: judge at the Luxembourg regional and magistrate's courts; from November 1978, Vice-President of the Luxembourg regional court;—

      —Ap       ril 1980: Avocat général (assisting the Public Prosecutor) at the Supreme Court of Justice;—

      —No       vember 1982: Judge at the Court of Appeal;—

      —No       vember 1986: Senior Judge at the Court of Appeal;—

      —Ma       rch 1991: President of a chamber of the Court of Appeal;—

      —Ju       ly 1993: Judge at the Court of Cassation;C.

C.       —Me       mber for many years of the Legislative Studies Committee and of the European Committee on Crime Problems;—

      —Pr       esident of the Military Appeals Court from 1991 to 1993;—

      —Pr       esident of the Independent Broadcasting Commission from 1991 to 1993;—

      —Pr       esident of the Supreme Disciplinary Committee of the Medical College from 1991 to 1993.Ma

Marc Mathékowitsch

Born on 26 June 1954, in Luxembourg City.

I.        Studies and qualifications

1966-73:       Secondary education at the Grand Ducal Athenaeum, Luxembourg City (Latin/languages section).

1973-74:        Advanced course (law and economics sections).

1974-77:        Master of Laws degree (business law) at the University of Paris I Panthéon — Sorbonne.

1977-78:        Further course in Luxembourg law.

1981:       Examination at end of probationary period (Luxembourg).

II.       National offices held

1978-81:        Pupil barrister.

May 1978:        Attaché at the Ministry for Justice.

Since May 1978:       Member of the Legislative Studies Committee of the Ministry for Justice.

June 1979:       Administrative Attaché at the Ministry for Justice.

April 1980:        Government Attaché at the Ministry for Justice.

April 1981:        Government Attaché, first class, at the Ministry for Justice.

Since October 1985:       Government delegate to the Committee for Contentious Proceedings of the Council of State.

May 1986:        Deputy Executive Adviser to the Ministry for Justice.

May 1987:        Executive Adviser to the Ministry for Justice.

June 1987:        Government adviser.

May 1990:        Government adviser, first class.

Since March 1994:        Secretary to the Luxembourg section of the International Commission on Civil Status.

III.       International offices held

Since 1978:       Member of the Luxembourg delegation to a number of committees of the European Union, the Council of Europe, The Hague Conference on Private International Law, the International Commission on Civil Status and Benelux.

Since 1980:        Member of the Luxembourg delegation to the European Committee on Legal Co-operation (CDCJ) of the Council of Europe.

Since 1990:        Member of the Luxembourg delegation to the Steering Committee for Human Rights (CDDH) of the Council of Europe.

Since 1993:        Member of the Bureau of the European Committee on Legal Co-operation (CDCJ) of the Council of Europe.

Since 1994:        Member of the Luxembourg delegation to the European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC) of the Council of Europe.

IV.       Additional information

Since 1993:        Member of the administrative board of the Luxembourg Institute for Human Rights.

APPENDIX III

Netherlands

Sibrand Karel Martens

Date of birth:       1 March 1930.

Place of birth:       The Hague.

Education and professional experience

1953:       Master's degree in Dutch law.

1955-76:       Barrister and solicitor in The Hague.

1976-87:       Judge at the Netherlands Court of Cassation.

1987 to date:       Vice-President of the Netherlands Court of Cassation.

1988 to date:       Judge at the European Court of Human Rights.

Hubertus Leonardus Joannes Roelvink

Date of birth:       4 September 1930

Education and professional experience

Master's degree in Dutch law

to 1962:       Company lawyer

1962-81:       Barrister and solicitor in Rotterdam.

1981 to date:       Judge at the Netherlands Court of Cassation.

Richard Hermann

Date of birth:       11 January 1943.

Education and professional experience

1966:       Master's degree in Dutch law.

1966-68:       Assistant lecturer at Leyde University.

1968-70:        Military service.

1970-76:        Civil servant in the Legislation Division of the Ministry of Justice.

1976-81:        Judge at Rotterdam Regional Court.

1981-89:        Judge at Amsterdam Court of Appeal.

1989-91:        Vice-President of Amsterdam Court of Appeal.

1991 to date:       Judge at the Court of Cassation .

APPENDIX IV

Norway

Rolv Ryssdal

Born:       27 October 1914 in Lakselv, Norway.

Education

1939:       Law degree (cand. jur.) University of Oslo).

Main positions held

1939-40:       Assistant Advocate, Oslo.

1940-41:       Judge at the Office of the District Judge in Eiker, Modum and Sigdal.

1941-43:       Legal Counsellor, Legal Division, Ministry of Supply.

1945-48:       Acting State Advocate, Office of the Director General of Public Prosecutions.

1947-52:       University fellowship in jurisprudence, University of Oslo.

1948:       Supreme Court Advocate.

1948-50:       The Supreme Court's Prosecutor for cases of treason.

1948-56:       Private law practice as a Supreme Court Advocate in Oslo.

1956-64:        Secretary General, Ministry of Justice.

1964-69:       Supreme Court Justice.

1969-84:       Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

Since 1973:       Judge at the European Court of Human Rights; from 1980 Vice-President; since 1985, President.

Other experience

1949-81       Regular member of the Advisory Council on Penal Reform, Chairman 1965-81.

Since 1981:       Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (The Hague).

Chairman of several public boards, commissions and committees.

Published several lectures on the European Court of Human Rights.

Trond Dolva

Date of birth:       13 July 1934.

Education and positions held

1950-53:       French Baccalauréat, Rouen, France.

1960:       Law degree, University of Oslo.

1961-62:       Deputy judge

1962-80:       Ministry of Justice, Law Department, Oslo.

From 1970:       Head of division

From 1976:       Deputy Director General

1980-84:       Judge, The High Court (Eidsivating lagmannsrett).

From 1984:       Judge, The Supreme Court of Norway.

Other experience

International human rights, international and constitutional law, procedural law, social law.

1971-77:       Member of Norwegian ad hoc law committees, participation in Scandinavian legal co-operation, Council of Europe, member of Committee on Legal Co-operation (CDCJ) and expert committees.

1978-84:       Council of Europe, member of Steering Committee on Human Rights.

1983-84:       Chairman CDDH.

1988- :       Chairman of the Human Rights Committee of the Norwegian Association of Judges.

      Study visits to the Baltic countries.

      Articles in legal journals on human rights and procedural law.

Working languages

Fluent in French and English. Some knowledge of Russian and German.

Jan Erik Helgesen

Born 1947

1975:       Law degree from the Faculty of Law, University of Oslo, Norway.

From 1971:       Employed at the Faculty of Law (Oslo).

Since 1985:       Associate professor, where he teaches legal methodology, constitutional law and public international law. Former senior researcher, at present consultative member of the Norwegian Institute of Human Rights.

Advisor in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Norway.

Published several articles and books on legal methodology, constitutional law and public international law.

Member of the Commission on Democracy through Law ("The Venice Commission"). Alternate member of the United Nations Sub-Commission. Chairman of the (ad hoc) United Nations Working Group mandated to elaborate a Declaration to protect "Human Rights Defenders".

APPENDIX V

Portugal

Manuel António Lopes Rocha

      —De       gree in Law from the University of Coimbra, 1954, with Honours.—

      —Co       mpleted the supplementary course in legal historical sciences in the same faculty, with Honours.—

      —Ap       pointed to the Public Prosecutor's Office in the Cartaxo Court, 15 October 1956.—

      —Ap       pointed Inspector of Lisbon Police Force, where he carried out his duties until 29 June 1962.—

      —Ad       mitted to the Judiciary, with the highest distinction, and took first place.—

      —Ap       pointed Judge at Monçŕ on 29 June 1962.—

      —Tr       ansferred, at his own request, to the Alenquer Court where he took up his duties on 30 October 1964.—

      —Ap       pointed assistant to the Public Prosecutor of the Lisbon Court of Appeal on 4 June 1966.—

      —Ap       pointed assistant to the Attorney General of the Republic, where he took up post on 27 March 1969.—

      —At       his request, given leave of absence on 1 February 1971 and practised as a lawyer or legal consultant in a number of private concerns.—

      —Ap       pointed assistant to the Attorney General of the Republic on 7 April 1976.—

      —Ap       pointed Deputy Attorney General of the Republic and became a member of the Consultative Council of the Attorney General's Department on 19 December 1978.—

      —Pr       ofessor of Criminology and Criminal Policy at the School of Criminal Sciences from 5 December 1958 to 29 June 1962.—

      —Re       sponsible for criminology seminars and criminology and economic criminal law lectures at the Centre for Legal Studies between 1978 and 1982.—

      —Po       rtuguese representative on the European Committee on Crime Problems of the Council of Europe (Strasbourg) since 1977.—

      —Me       mber of the Select Committee of Experts on Economic Crime, Council of Europe, 1977-81.—

      —Me       mber of the Select Committee of Experts on Violence in Present-Day Society, Council of Europe, from 1977.—

      —El       ected member of the Selection Committee for Criminological Research Fellowships of the Council of Europe, March 1981.—

      —Me       mber of the Portuguese delegation to the 12th Conference of European Ministers of Justice, May 1980, Luxembourg.—

      —Me       mber of the Portuguese delegation to the preparatory meeting for the 13th Conference of European Ministers of Justice in Montreux (Switzerland), June 1981.—

      —Me       mber of the Editorial Board of the journals Scientia Juridica and the Bar Review.—P

      —Pe       rmanent contributor to the Bulletin of the Ministry of Justice.—

      —Po       rtuguese representative to the Conference on Crime Policy organised by the Council of Europe in Strasbourg (1980).—

      —Me       mber of the Portuguese Criminal Code Review Committee (1981).—

      —Po       rtuguese representative at the Congress of the International Society of Social Defence, held in Thessalonika, September 1981.—

      —Pa       rticipant at the 3rd Latin Social Defence Days, held at Aix-en-Provence, September 1982.—

      —El       ected Chairman of the Select Committee of Experts on Violence in Present-Day Society, Council of Europe, September 1982.—

      —Me       mber of the Select Committee of Experts on the Criminal Liability of Corporate Bodies, Council of Europe, since 1983.—

      —Me       mber of the Portuguese delegation to the 14th Conference of European Ministers of Justice of the Council of Europe, Athens (Greece), May 1982.—

      —Me       mber of the Portuguese delegation to the Preparatory Conference of Ministers of Justice of the Council of Europe, Rome (Italy), May 1983.—

      —Po       rtuguese representative at the 15th Conference of European Ministers of Justice, Madrid (Spain), May 1984.—

      —Me       mber of the Portuguese delegation to the 9th International Criminological Conference, Vienna (Austria), September 1983.—

      —Me       mber of the Select Committee of Experts on Extra-Territorial Jurisdiction Law, from September 1984.—

      —Me       mber of working parties established to revise the 1982 Portuguese Criminal Code.—

      —Me       mber of the working party to prepare the draft legislative decree on business offences and threats to public health.—

      —Pa       rticipant, as a speaker, at several seminars and colloquies organised by the Centre for Legal Studies on economic offences and the law governing administrative offences in 1984.—

      —Po       rtuguese representative at the 16th Criminological Research Conference of the Council of Europe, November 1984.—

      —Me       mber of the Portuguese delegation at the Conference of European Ministers of Justice, Edinburgh, May 1985.—

      —Me       mber of the Committee of Experts on the Operation of European Conventions in the Penal Field, since July 1985.—

      —Ap       pointed Director of the Technico-Legislative Advisory Board of the Ministry of Justice (1985).—

      —Pa       rticipant at the 7th Criminological Colloquium of the Council of Europe (1985).—

      —Ap       pointed Portuguese representative at the 19th Session of the United Nations — Committee for Crime Prevention and the Fight Against Delinquency, (Vienna, February 1986).—

      —Me       mber of the Portuguese delegation at the 16th Conference of European Ministers of Justice, Oslo (1986).—

      —Ap       pointed member of the Committee of Experts for the Study of Problems Raised by New Technology, of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice (1986).—

      —Sp       eaker at the 37th International Criminology Course (Lisbon, 1986) — theme: Critical assessment of the application of the Portuguese Criminal Code.—

      —In       vited participant at the meeting of the International Penal and Penitential Foundation, Coimbra, September 1986.—

      —Ch       airman of the Portuguese Criminal Code Revision Committee, 1982 (order of the Ministry of Justice, August 1986).—

      —Me       mber of the Committee on New Legislation relating to Transplants and Similar Medical Operations (order of the Ministry of Justice, March 1987).—

      —Me       mber of the Portuguese delegation at the Informal Conference of Ministers of Justice of the Council of Europe, held in Helsinki (1987).—

      —Pa       rticipant at the Commemorative Congress for the 100th anniversary of the Netherlands Criminal Code, held in Amsterdam (1987) at the personal invitation of the Netherlands Minister of Justice.—

      —El       ected member of the Bureau of the European Committee on Crime Problems of the Council of Europe (1988).—

      —Me       mber of the Portuguese delegation to the 17th Conference of European Ministers of Justice of the Council of Europe, Lisbon (1988).—

      —In       vited participant to the 10th Congress of the International Society of Criminology, Hamburg (1988).—

      —Me       mber of the committee of experts responsible for drafting the new Portuguese Code of Criminal Procedure, in force since 1 January 1988.—

      —Re       sponsible for co-ordinating legislative reforms in the Ministry of Justice, which included the revision of the Criminal Code of 1982, the revision of the Institutes of Criminology, the drafting of legislation on computer-related crime and assistance to the victims of crime and of the outline law governing economic and social criminal law, as well as the revision of financial legislation (order of the Ministry of Justice, 19 August 1988).—

      —Ch       airman of the committee responsible for drafting legislation to combat clandestine practice as lawyers or barristers (1988).—

      —Sp       eaker in a number of Portuguese towns and cities on issues relating to criminal procedure, in the context of the new Portuguese Code of Criminal Procedure (1988).—

      —In       vited participant at the 18th Criminological Research Conference of the Council of Europe, Strasbourg (1988).—

      —In       vited participant at the 4th Latin Days on Criminal Law and Social Defence, held in Coimbra (1989).—

      —Sp       eaker on the course organised by the National Institute of Administration on the Techniques of Legislation, held in Ceiras (1989).—

      —In       vited speaker at the Congress on the Law of the Iberian World, held in San Salvador de Bahia, Brazil (1989).—

      —Sp       eaker in a number of Portuguese towns and cities on the law governing new bio-medical technologies (1989).—

      —Or       ganiser of courses for social security officials on the law governing administrative offences for social security officials (Lisbon, 1989).—

      —Dr       afting of legislation on individual data protection in the context of computerisation (1989).—

      —Dr       afting of legislation on state assistance to the victims of crime (1989).—

      —Dr       afting of legislation to revise the financial management system of the Ministry of Justice (1989).—

      —Me       mber of the Council of Europe's Select Committee of Experts on Criminological and Prison Aspects of the Control of Transmissible Diseases, including Aids and related health problems in prison (including the problems of treating prisoners who are drug addicts or Aids victims) (1989).—

      —Pa       rticipant, as an expert, at the meeting of Ministers of Justice of the member countries of the European Communities (St Sebastian, 1989).—

      —Pa       rticipant at the negotiations for the celebration of an extradition treaty and a judicial co-operation treaty between Portugal and Hungary (Budapest, 1989).—

      —Pa       rticipant at the 9th Criminological Colloquium of the Council of Europe on Delays in the Criminal Justice System (Strasbourg, 1989).—

      —In       vited participant at the 1st Council of Europe Symposium on Bioethics (Strasbourg, 1989).—

      —Sp       eaker at the Colloquy on International Co-operation in Criminal Affairs, organised by the Legal Studies Centre (Lisbon, 1989).—

      —Sp       eaker at the Colloquy on Ethics and Scientific Investigation, organised by the Association of Science and Technology for Development (Lisbon, 1989).—

      —Sp       eaker at the Colloquy on the new European Criminal Procedure (Coimbra, 1989).—

      —Sp       eaker at the Theological "Days" on Artificial Human Life (Braga, 1989).—

      —In       vited participant at the International Meeting on Genetics and Human Life (Coimbra, 1989).—

      —Pa       rticipant, invited by the Secretary of State for Science and Technology, with nine other experts, at the meeting on bio-medicine, psychology and law, at which he was responsible for the criminal aspects of the use of human tissues, organs and embryos for transplantations or for industrial or commercial purposes; and criminal aspects of hormone treatment for birth control purposes (Sesimbra, 1989).—

      —Pa       rticipant at the 14th Congress of the International Association of Penal Law, where he took part in the activities of the 2nd Section — Criminal law and modern bio-medical techniques (Vienna, 1989).—

      —Pa       rticipant at the 19th Criminological Research Conference of the Council of Europe (Strasbourg, 1990).—

      —El       ected member of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1990).—

      —Ap       pointed Chairman of the Committee on the Implantation of the Penal System of the Ministry of Justice (1990).—

      —Me       mber of the Portuguese delegation to the 18th Conference of European Ministers of Justice (Istanbul, 1990).—

      —Bu       dapest Conference, as part of the Council of Europe's Demosthenes programme, on the European Convention on the Transfer of Proceedings in Criminal Matters (1990).—

      —Ba       r Conference on Legislative Initiatives in the field of Computer-Related Crime (Lisbon, 1990).—

      —Me       mber of the Editorial Board of Portuguese Criminal Science Review (1991).—

      —Me       mber of the Scientific Council of the Journal Legislation — Papers on the Science of Legislation, to be published by the National Institute of Administration (1991).—

      —Me       mber of the International Criminology Association.—

      —Le       ctures at the International University seminar on "Justice and Penalties", from 15 to 17 April 1991, on the following themes: "Criminal law in space and time" and "Evaluation of the enforcement of penalties introduced by the 1992 Penal Code. The revision of the general part of the Code in 1991".—

      —Le       cture at the Criminal Law Seminar in memory of Professor Eduardo Correia on the general theme: "The system of sanctions in Portugal and the revision of the Criminal Code", Coimbra, 22 to 24 April 1991. Specific theme: "Imprisonment".—

      —Gu       est participant at the international colloquy: "The desirability of a European system of criminal law", held at the Law Faculty of Coimbra University from 20 to 21 May 1991. —

      —El       ected by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe to the post of Judge at the European Court of Human Rights (Strasbourg, September 1991).—

      —Gu       est lecturer on criminal law for the law course at Lisbon International University (September 1991).—

      —Le       cture delivered at the Pope Paul VI Centre in Fatima on: "Penal and criminological questions arising as a result of the spread of AIDS, including penitentiary aspects" (20 September 1991, at the First National Conference on AIDS, Ethics and christian Morals, organised by the Portuguese Association of Catholic Doctors).—

      —Le       cture on "The law of administrative offences and environmental law" delivered at the third course on environmental law (Lisbon Catholic University, on 16 November 1991).—

      —Le       cture on "The new law on computer crime — principles and solutions" (Lisbon Bar, February 1992).—

      —Ch       airman of the debate on "The Indonesian Government and the violation of human rights" at the convention in support of East Timor (Lisbon, 14 March 1992).—

      —Le       cture at the Forum Picoas on "Laundering of capital of criminal origin" (Lisbon, 8 May 1992).—

      —Le       cture on: "Criteria and rules of pluralism in social communication" at the International Colloquium on "Pluralism in social communication", organised by the High Authority for Social Communication (Lisbon, 5 June 1992).—

      —Le       cture on: "Judicial delays — Portugal and the European Court of Human Rights" (Coimbra, 14 June 1992).—

      —Le       cture on: "The European Convention on Human Rights" (Law Faculty, Lisbon University, 19 June 1992).—

      —Ap       pointed member of the Scientific Committee of the European Institute of Spain (Madrid, September 1992).—

      —Ap       pointed Judge at the Supreme Administrative Court (28 September 1992).—

      —Le       cturer at the closing session of the Seminar on Legal Systems in Europe, organised by the Paris Court of Appeal, where he addressed the subject: "The European Convention on Human Rights as a factor of European judicial unification" (Paris, 14 November 1992).—

      —Le       cture on: "Technical and penal aspects of computer crime" at the course on law, information technology and freedoms organised by the Franco-Portuguese Institute (Lisbon, 19 November 1992).—

      —Ap       pointed member of the National Ethical Council for Life Sciences (30 November 1992).—

      —Le       cture on "The general part of the Portuguese Criminal Code" at the Hispano-Portuguese Seminar on the Reform of the Criminal Code" (Madrid, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, 5 March 1993).—

      —Pa       rticipation in a debate on "Genetic engineering" at the Second Seminar on Medical Ethics in the Aula Magna of the Lisbon Faculty of Medicine (5 May 1993).—

      —Pa       rticipant at the Seminar on Freedom of Information and Respect for Private Life, organised by the Association of Catholic Jurists, at which he lectured on the seminar theme in the light of the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights (Lisbon, 18 June 1993).—

      —Le       cture on Portuguese legislation relating to international legal co-operation in criminal matters (Legislative Decree No. 43/91 of 22 January 1991), at a seminar organised by the Council of Europe as part of the Demodroit programme in collaboration with the Romanian Ministry of Justice (Bucharest, 20 October 1993).—

      —Le       cture on the revision of the general part of the Criminal Code at the Conference on the Reform of the Criminal Code, organised by the Academic Association of the International University (Lisbon, 3 November 1993).—

      —Le       cture on "Computer crime" at the Seminar on the Law of Information Technology and Telecommunications held in Lisbon (10 November 1993).—

      —Le       cture on civil and criminal liability of medical acts at the Ninth Seminar on General Medicine and Family Medicine (Leiria, 12 November 1993).—

      —Pa       rticipation in the International Congress of the International Movement of Catholic Jurists. Main theme "The protection of life and bioethical problems in the light of the European Convention on Human Rights", contribution submitted on the subject of antenatal diagnosis. (Palais de l'Europe, Strasbourg, 19 November 1993).—

      —Le       cture on "The European Convention on Human Rights — supervisory organs, doctrine and case-law" at the Centre for Legal Studies (National College of the Judiciary), Lisbon, January 1994.—

      —Le       cture on: "Modern guidelines for a reform of the criminal code" (Puerto de Santa Maria, Spain, April 1994).—

      —Le       cture on: "Environmental law and human rights" (Seminar on Environmental Law, Lisbon Autonomous University, Caldas da Rainha, May 1994).—

      —Ap       pointed Judge at the Supreme Court of Justice (July 1994).—

      —Au       thor of many publications and draft laws.Jo

José António Da Rosa Dias Bravo

Assistant delegate of the Public Prosecutor of the judicial district of Lisbon from 20 May 1959 to 19 January 1961.

Delegate of the Public Prosecutor in the judicial districts of:

      —Po       nte de Sor, from 27 September 1961 to 28 February 1963;—

      —Co       vilhă, from 28 February 1963 to 5 June 1963;—

      —Lo       ulé, from 5 June 1963 to 7 November 1964;—

      —Ab       rantes, from 7 November 1964 to 26 April 1965;—

      —Li       sbon, from 26 April 1965 to 12 July 1967.Ju

Judge in the judicial districts of:

      —Po       nta do Sol, from 22 August 1967 to 20 November 1968;—

      —El       vas, from 20 November 1968 to 17 May 1975;—

      —Li       sbon, Criminal Investigation Division, from 17 May 1975 to 19 June 1975.De

Deputy Chief Public Prosecutor appointed by decree of 5 May 1975.

Public Prosecutor and Deputy Chief Public Prosecutor in the judicial district of Evora from 19 June 1975 to 19 December 1980.

Deputy Chief Public Prosecutor in the judicial district of Lisbon from 19 December

1980 to 12 November 1984.

Vice-Chief Public Prosecutor since 12 November 1984, a post which he has occupied since that date.

Judge Counsel at the Supreme Court of Justice since 21 December 1993.

Member of the Higher Council of the Public Prosecutor's Department from 19 June 1975 to 12 November 1984.

Representative of the Public Prosecutor's Department, by virtue of his duties, on the Higher Land Registry Council from 19 December 1980 to 12 November 1984.

Member of the Disciplinary Council of the Centre for Legal Studies.

Member of the Commission for negotiating the technical implementation of the Defence Agreement between Portugal and the United States of America of 18 May 1984.

Chairman of the Supervisory Committee of the Intelligence Services Data Centres, since 14 January 1988.

Member of the Portuguese delegation at the 8th United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and the Treatment of Offenders, held in Havana, Cuba, from 27 August to 27 September 1990.

Legal advisor to the Portuguese Delegation to the Portuguese-Spanish Commission for regulating the use and exploitation of international rivers in transfrontier areas, since 12 November 1990.

Member of the International Maritime Law Commission.

Awarded the rank of Grand Official of the Military Order of Christ.

Armando Acácio Gomes Leandro

Date of birth:       14 April 1935

Profession:       Judge

Posts currently held

      —Di       rector of the Centre for Legal Studies;—

      —Ch       airman of the Portuguese Association for Minors and Family Law;—

      —Ch       airman of the general meeting of the Portuguese Association for the Support of Victims;—

      —Me       mber of the Trustees Council of the "Pro Dignitate" foundation (promotion of respect for human rights and the prevention of violence);—

      —Me       mber of the Trustees Council of "The Community against Aids".Du

Duties performed in the past

      —Me       mber of the Public Prosecutor's Department;—

      —Or       dinary court judge;—

      —Ju       venile court judge;—

      —El       ected member of the Higher Council of the Judiciary;—

      —Me       mber of the National Committee for the International Year of the Child;—

      —Le       cturer at the Centre for Legal Studies;—

      —Di       rector of Studies at the Centre for Legal Studies;—

      —Na       tional co-ordinator for the "Projecto Vida" — national project for combating drug abuse.Se

Select list of published works

      —Th       e training of members of the Public Prosecutor's Department;—

      —Th       e rights of minors;—

      —Pa       rental authority;—

      —Ad       option — national and international practice;—

      —Th       e family and the law;—

      —Ju       venile delinquency;—

      —Th       e prevention of violence;—

      —Th       e ill-treatment of children. Informal and formal measures. The role of the judicial system;—

      —Th       e role of the legal profession in the conception and application of measures on behalf of handicapped persons;—

      —Ch       ildren's rights, violence and social communication;—

      —Dr       ugs and the law;—

      —Ai       ds, ethics and law. A

APPENDIX VI

Spain

José Maria Morenilla Rodriguez

Born in Grenada, 29 August 1926. Married and father of two children.

Professional activities

November 1952:       Entered the judicial career exercising functions as Judge of First Instance in different towns in Spain.

1978:       Appointed after contest of judges as Legal Advisor ("Letrado") in the Ministry of Justice working in the field of International Legal Co-operation. During this time collaborated in the elaboration of penal legislation, (Penitentiary Act, draft of the Penal Code, reform of the Code of Criminal Procedure, etc).

January 1987:       Appointed Judge of the Second Chamber (Criminal) of the Supreme Court. In February 1988, Agent of the Spanish Government before the European Commission of Human Rights.

Since January 1990: Judge of the Third Chamber (Administrative) of the Supreme Court.

Activities in the international field

May 1977:       Participated in a "stage" in the Direction of Human Rights in the Council of Europe.

Since then has participated actively in: committees, seminars and colloquia organised by the Council of Europe in the fields of legal co-operation, crime problems and human rights; in reunions of the Conference of Private International Law in The Hague; the elaboration of different bilateral treaties of civil, criminal and procedural law and judicial co-operation; and in various activities in the United Nations (member of a working group in the elaboration of the United Nations Torture Convention, seminar in Geneva on racial discrimination, congresses for crime prevention, etc.

1979 and 1985:       Presented the reports of the Spanish Government on fulfilling the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights before the United Nations Committee of Human Rights.

From 1982 to 1986:       Member of the Bureau of the Steering Committee on Crime Problems of the Council of Europe and President of the Committee of Experts on the simplification of criminal justice.

February 1990:       Elected judge of the European Court of Human Rights, in which post he continues at present.

Academic record

Law Degree (highest grade), University of Grenada, 1948.

Baccalauréat in French (highest grade), University of Grenada, 1949.

Fulbright Scholarship in Comparative Law, Columbia University, New York, 1960-61 for the study of judicial reform in the United States.

Doctor of Law from the University of Grenada, 1966. Thesis on "The Judicial Reform in the United States", cum laude.

Diploma in Criminology, University of Complutense, Madrid, 1978 (highest grade).

Diploma in European Communities Law from the Diplomatic School, Madrid, 1979.

Diploma in European Communities Law from the Institut Européen d'Administration Publique, Maastricht, Netherlands, 1986.

Summer courses in the Universities Menendez Pelayo of Santander, Oxford and Yale and in the Salzburg Seminar on American Studies.

Other titles

Permanent member of the general Commission of Codification of Spain since 1978.

Professor of the Judiciary School of Madrid, 1979-82.

Decorations

Crosses of San Raimundo de Peńafort and the Cross of Honour of San Raimundo de Peńafort.

Other activities

Numerous conferences in universities and professional centres on judicial organisation, penal law and criminology and human rights.

Languages

Fluent (both written and spoken) in English, French, Italian and Catalan, and reading German.

Publications

Numerous works in the fields of penal law and criminology, international law, judicial organisation and human rights.

Leopoldo Torres Boursault

Born 12 January 1941 in Soria (Spain).

Lawyer practising in Madrid since 1965, involved in many prosecutions of political and trade union activists during the Franco dictatorship. Degree in Comparative Law.

Former Professor of Philosophy of Law in the Law Faculty of the University of Madrid, the Institute of Criminology and the Centre of Judicial Studies.

Secretary General of the International Movement of Catholic Lawyers (1970-74).

Ad hoc Judge with the European Court of Human Rights; took part in several human rights fact-finding missions in Brazil, Portugal and Chile. Member of the Council of Europe's European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1989-91, and again from 1993 onwards).

Elected member of Parliament in the 1979, 1982 and 1986 general elections, and First Vice-President of the Congress of Deputies (1982-89). Chairman of the Joint Congress-Senate Committee on the European Communities (1986-89).

General Public Prosecutor (Fiscal General del Estado) with the Court of Cassation (1990-92).

Officer of the Legion of Honour, Gră-Cruz do Cruzeiro do Sul (Brazil), Gran Cruz del Águila Azteca (Mexico), Gran Cruz Bernardo O'Higgins (Chile), Gran Cruz de San Raimundo de Peńafort (Spain).

Claudio Movilla Alvarez

I.       Professional experience

In 1959 — passed entrance examination for school of the judiciary (escuela de la magistratura); served firstly in the Public Prosecutor's Office of the Murcia Provincial Court ("Audiencia Provincial"); later appointed successively to the Santander, Pamplona, Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Pontevedra Public Prosecutor's Offices.

In 1971 — passed an internal competitive examination to become a judge specialist in judicial review of administrative action proceedings, and appointed to the Corunna Audiencia Territorial.

From 1984 to 1987, President of the Judicial Review Division.

In 1987 — appointed President of the Seville "Audiencia Territorial" by the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, serving until 1989, when the "Higher Courts" were set up.

In 1989 — appointed to the Higher Court of the Cantabria Region and given tenure in May 1994. For some six years, while serving as judge in the Corunna judicial review section, was also judge for minors in the same city.

II.       Publications

      —Po       litical principles of judicial review of administrative action;—

      —Th       e Constitution and criminal law;—

      —Th       e Constitution and the jurisdiction for minors;—

      —No       tes on children's courts;—

      —Lo       cal authority autonomy;—

      —Ci       tizen participation and the control of municipalities;—

      —Th       e administration of justice and State authority autonomy;—

      —Th       e new organisation of the Spanish judiciary;—

      —Th       e constitutional framework of expropriation;—

      —Th       e responsibility of the State as a judge;—

      —Ju       dicial authorities, written in co-operation with Mr Perfecto Andrés Ibańez;—

      —Th       e sociology of interaction, written in co-operation with other authors;—

      —St       ate of emergency and administrative law.Nu

Numerous articles on various legal and political subjects in different newspapers and journals.

III.       Other activities

Participation as lecturer, chairman or rapporteur in numerous conferences, encounters and seminars; associate professor for several years in the Criminal Law Department of the Santiago de Compostela Law Faculty and the Public Law Department of the Cantabrian Regional University.

Supervisor at the University of Deusto. Worked with the Ministry of Justice on various proposed reforms of the children's courts, and participated in training courses organised by the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, eg co-ordinating courses on judicial review of administrative action during the 1993-94 training course.

IV.       In addition to my mother tongue, Spanish, I speak French, Italian and Portuguese.

APPENDIX VII

Turkey

Feyyaz Gölcüklü

Born in Ula (Mugla, Turkey) in 1926. Graduated from the Lycée Atatürk of Izmir in 1943 and took a law degree at the Istanbul University law faculty in 1947. He later gained a doctorate in law at the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland) in 1952. On completion of his probation as a lawyer in 1953, he entered the Ankara University political science faculty as an assistant lecturer in criminal law and criminology, and enrolled in the Ankara Bar Association in 1954. Having successfully undergone the examinations for admission to higher education posts, he was promoted to the position of Privat-Docent in 1958 and appointed to a lectureship at Ankara University in 1965.

Since embarking on an academic career, he has taught criminal law, criminal procedure and criminology and, since 1962, the law of communication and public freedoms, in various university departments. He collaborated in scientific research and carried out academic studies in 1961 in the United Kingdom (London School of Economics) and in 1967 at Paris University. He was chief legal adviser to the Turkish broadcasting organisation from 1964 to 1966.

In addition to his academic duties, he headed the Ankara University college of journalism and radio and television broadcasting (1968-70 and 1973-74), and was Dean of the political science faculty from 1974 to 1976. He was a member of the Turkish Consultative Assembly between 1980-82.

Since 1977, when he was elected judge at the European Court of Human Rights in respect of Turkey, he has given courses at masters and doctorate level on the international protection of human rights. He has published many books and articles.

Ergun Özbudun

Date and place of birth:        1 July 1937, Ankara.

Academic degrees

Professor Constitutional Law — Ankara University 1975.

Associate Professor Constitutional Law — Ankara University 1967.

Dr. iur. Public Law — Ankara University 1962.

Employment history

April 1975 to present: Professor; Chairman, Chair of Constitutional Law; Ankara Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi.

September 1981 to September 1982: Visiting professor, Columbia University, Department of Political Science.

September 1982 to September 1983: Visiting professor, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School.

November 1985 to February 1986: Visiting scholar, Georgetown University, School of International Affairs.

Winter 1981: Visiting professor, Institut d'études politiques de Paris

Autumn 1977: Lester Martin fellow, Harry S. Truman Research Institute, Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

November 1967 to April 1975: Associate Professor (Docent) Ankara Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi.

September 1971 to September 1973: Research fellow, Harvard University Centre for International Affairs.

September 1972 - September 1973: Research fellow, Centre for Middle Eastern Studies, Harvard University

December 1959 to November 1967: Assistant Professor (Asistan) Ankara Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi.

September 1963 to September 1964: Visiting scholar, Harvard University, Department of Government.

September 1964 to September 1966: Research fellow, Harvard University, Centre for International Affairs.

June 1966 to September 1966: Visiting professor, University of Chicago, Department of Political Science.

May 1971 to August 1971: Member, Executive Board, Turkish Radio and Television Corporation

1976 to 1982: Director, Institute for Middle Eastern Studies, Ankara University.

1989 to present: Advisor to the Speaker of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.

Professional awards

September 1963 to September 1966: Post-doctoral Rockefeller Foundation fellowship.

Autumn 1977: Lester Martin fellowship, Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Honours, scholarly and professional duties and achievements

1986-present:       President, Turkish Political Science Association.

1980-1986:       Vice-President, Turkish Political Science Association.

1987-present:       Vice-President, Turkish Democracy Foundation.

1984-present:       Member, Executive Committee, Atatürk Research Centre.

1979-85:       Member, Executive Committee, International Political Science Association.

1985-88:       Member, Programme Committee, International Political Science Association.

1981-86:       Member, Editorial Board, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies.

1990-present:       Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Democracy.

1975-77:       Director, Princeton University Woodrow Wilson School research project on income distribution in Turkey.

1986:       Session organiser, International Sociological Association XI, World Congress of Sociology, 18 to 22 August 1986, New Delhi; session on "Elections in Developing Countries.

1985:       Session organiser, International Political Science Association World Congress, 15 to 20 July 1985, Paris; session on "Democratisation in Post-Authoritarian Societies".

1988-90:       Member, Grants Committee, Middle East Research Competition, Ford Foundation.

1989-93:       European Committee for the Prevention of Torture (Council of Europe).

1990-present:       Member, European Commission for Democracy through Law (Council of Europe).

Publications

Many publications in English and Turkish.

Hūseyin Pazarci

Born on 17 December 1944 in Babaeski, Turkey.

Education

Law degree, Faculty of Law and Economics, Paris (1968); Arts degree (sociology), Faculty of Arts, Paris (1969); postgraduate studies (Diplôme d'Etudes supérieures — DES) in public law (1969); Doctorate in public law, Paris II University (1971).

Academic career

Assistant lecturer in public international law (1972) and lecturer in public international law (1976), Faculty of Political Science, Ankara; Head of the Department of International Law in 1977; Professor of public international law in 1985; Professor of law, Hacettepe University, 1987. Co-tutor of the postgraduate seminar on the legal aspects of current international problems, Paris II University (1989-90). Currently Head of the Department of Public International Law, Faculty of Political Science, Ankara University. Holder of a French Government fellowship for the DES and doctorate (1968-71). Holder of a Humboldt-Stiftung fellowship (Federal Republic of Germany) (1980-81).

Other posts

Director of Legal Affairs and Training in the European Community Department of the State Planning Organisation under the authority of the Prime Minister (1988-89). Head of the Legal Affairs Department of the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs (since 1989).

Main diplomatic activities

Member of the Turkish delegation to the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (second phase). Counsel for the Turkish Government in the cases on Cyprus before the European Commission of Human Rights (first three). Counsel for the Turkish Government in the case of the Aegean Sea continental shelf (jurisdiction) before the ICJ. Member of the Turkish delegation to the United Nations Conference on succession of states in respect of treaties (first phase). Member of the Turkish delegation to some sessions of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. Participant in some of the Turco-Greek intergovernmental discussions on the Aegean Sea continental shelf. Member of the Turkish delegation to some meetings of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its legal sub-committee (1977-78). Member of some Council of Europe ad hoc committees for consideration of draft United Nations conventions. Turkish member of the Council of Europe Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law. Member of the Turkish delegation to some sessions of the United Nations General Assembly (Sixth Commission). Head of the Turkish delegation to the annual sessions of the Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee (1990, 1991, 1992). Head of the Turkish delegation to the CSCE meeting of legal experts on the peaceful settlement of disputes (Valetta, 1990). Deputy Head of the Turkish delegation to the ... on the admission of Turkey as an associate member of the WEU. Member of the Turkish delegations to various conferences and diplomatic negotiations.

Membership of international judicial bodies

Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague. Member of the Centre for International Commercial Arbitration of the Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee (Cairo). Member of the CSCE Conflict Prevention Centre for machinery for the settlement of disputes.


1 1See Docs. 918, 1361, 1652, 1856, 1968, 2063, 2120, 2272, 2314, 2877, 3010, 3171, 3231, 3240, 3315, 3388, 3461, 3594, 3599, 3700, 3811, 3901, 3915, 3966, 4141, 4459, 4515, 4604, 4653, 4654, 4819, 4996, 5387, 5489, 5498, 5619, 5833, 5861, 5925, 5987, 6083, 6153, 6269, 6407, 6415, 6467, 6468, 6542, 6596, 6601, 6657, 6913, 7021, 7033 and 7034.

2 1See Appendix VI.

3 1See Appendices I, II, III, IV, V and VII.