25 March 2002
Image of women in the media
Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men
Rapporteur: Mrs Maria José López González, Spain, Socialist Group
The Assembly notes that although there has been visible progress, women’s image in the media still remains a negative and sexist one, and women's real problems are thus overlooked.
This is the result of the inadequate training of journalists and media managers as well as of the small number of women holding decision-making posts.
The Assembly therefore recommends that the governments of member states condemn the concept of “sexism” and adopt a law on gender equality in the media.
The Assembly also recommends that the Committee of Ministers set up an observatory composed of female journalists under the aegis of the Council of Europe to study the way in which women are portrayed in the European media and to propose appropriate measures.
I. Draft recommendation
1. The Assembly refers to its Resolution 1018 (1994) on equality of rights between men and women, in which it recommends that machinery be set up to “promote and supervise respect for the principle of equality of rights between women and men”, and encourages the media “to promote equality”.
2. The Assembly notes that, although progress has visibly been made in several countries of Europe, women’s image in the media still all too frequently remains a negative one, and continues to be stereotyped and sexist. Women are associated with the private sphere, the household and family life. The media frequently present women as sex objects. While the contemporary world has undergone rapid change, the image of women in the media has not really been altered.
3. The Assembly welcomes the fact that certain European governments, women’s groups and intergovernmental bodies have made progress where the depiction of women in the media is concerned. The appointment of an ombudsperson responsible for equality issues to apply national and Community legislation constitutes a step towards respect for gender equality.
4. The Assembly notes with regret that certain European countries have regressed where women’s image in the media is concerned. Following the world conference in Beijing, little has been done by governments and media.
5. In certain countries of eastern Europe and in the CIS countries, the image of women in the media is relatively negative. The media describe men as reformers, whereas a limited role is attributed to women. This results from the social and cultural heritage of the countries concerned. These countries suffer from a lack of democratic experience and are encountering difficulties in their development process. The images of women which occur in their media are evidence of the dramatic situation of women’s rights in these countries. Women’s real problems, like women’s movements, are ignored.
6. Certain countries have tried to set up self-regulation machinery for media producers, but governments fail to allocate the necessary funds to these efforts.
7. The stereotyped image of women is a result of the inadequate training of journalists and media managers and the small numbers of women holding decision-making posts. While the number of female journalists has risen considerably in the past ten years, there are still few women on media management bodies, and they are unable significantly to influence the policy pursued by the media.
8. The Assembly is concerned about the increasing exposure of children to sexist messages. The antisocial forces exerted by the repeated sending of this kind of messages are particularly worrying at a time when society is attempting to curb violence against women.
9. The Assembly calls on the governments of Council of Europe member states to adopt and to implement a policy against sexist and stereotyped images, representations and portrayals of women in the media. The Assembly invites governments to set up more bodies to monitor the media and supervise the audiovisual sector.
10. The Assembly therefore asks that the governments of member states:
i. introduce the concept of “sexism” into their legislation and condemn it to the same degree as “racism”;
ii. adopt a law on gender equality in the media;
iii. make the ombudsperson responsible for issues relating to gender equality to create direct links between the ombudsperson’s office and the population as a whole;
iv. draw a distinction between the situation in the privately owned and publicly owned media;
v. give media associations the right to complain to the courts in the event of a violation of human rights;
vi. finance and start new equality projects in the media;
vii. encourage, within their national systems, the setting up and financing of centres to monitor national media, including the new information and communications technologies;
viii. encourage advertisers to increase self-regulation through their own system of professional ethics, in so far as freedom of expression permits;
ix. use positive discrimination measures or quota systems to guarantee a balance between women and men at every level of decision-making;
x. encourage women to participate at every level of decision-making in the media and to take posts of responsibility in the technological sector and on public advisory bodies;
xi. assign resources and implement programmes to increase women’s access to communications resources and knowledge, particularly the new communications technologies;
xii. make substantial efforts to release the necessary funds for the provision of equality training for women and men, inter alia at schools of journalism;
xiii. finance comparative studies with a view to ensuring that policy-makers have a better image of gender equality.
11. The Assembly recommends that the Committee of Ministers:
i. draw up international ethical standards based on equality between women and men;
ii. help to develop international co-operation with a view to giving priority to the strengthening of communications networks and of women’s media and to the principle of gender equality;
iii. set up an observatory composed of female journalists under the aegis of the Council of Europe to study the way in which women are portrayed in the European media and to propose appropriate measures.
II. Explanatory memorandum by Ms López González
1. For several decades, the image of women in the media has been a topical issue to study. However, as a European Commission report emphasises, there are not insignificant discrepancies between the research carried out in the various countries. In practice, whereas certain countries (the Nordic countries, United Kingdom, Germany and Netherlands) have already done a lot of work on this subject, others have not yet attached the necessary importance to studying the image of women in the media, either for reasons linked with their population size (Iceland and Ireland), or because this field of research is not yet considered sufficiently legitimate (France and Italy).
2. Although progress has visibly been made in several countries, women’s image in the media still all too frequently remains a negative one and continues to be stereotyped and sexist. The undertakings made at the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in 1995 in Beijing, have not been honoured by all the signatory states.
3. This is mainly a result of the lack of training of journalists and media managers and of women’s under-representation in media decision-making posts. For example, the CSA (the French broadcasting authority) has only three women members, but six men.
4. The problem of the concentration of media ownership among a few very powerful men (Mr Berlusconi, Mr Murdoch) also constitutes an obstacle to women’s access to decision-making posts. No woman in the world has such authority over the media, and few women edit major magazines or newspapers.
5. The most obvious change in the communications sector in the past five years has been the emergence of the Internet as an area where women can not only gain access to information, but also produce and disseminate their own information and run a network of their own.
I. The situation in member states
A. Countries where action has been taken
6. The first thing which should be looked at is the progress made in relation to women’s media image over recent years. International Women’s Day (originally marked early in the 20th century and officially declared by the United Nations in 1977) sees women voicing their claims and holding events on 8 March each year. Thus they are able to express their views on television, on the radio and in the newspapers. Feminists criticise the fact that there is only that one day each year for women.
7. Semantic changes have made a contribution to the improvements that have been achieved in the portrayal of women in the media. Very few people, for example, would now speak of the “rights of man”, and even the term “human rights” is sometimes replaced by “rights of the person” (in French, “droits humains” or “droits de la personne” are terms not specific to either gender which are increasingly being preferred to “droits de l’homme”). These are rights enjoyed by every woman and every man simply because each is a human being. Female French ministers are now referred to as “Madame la Ministre”, as traditionally masculine job titles give way to feminine equivalents, creating as much of a stir in the political world as in society at large.
8. The Toplink office was set up in the Netherlands in 1995 to increase women’s participation in management and in government agencies. Toplink maintains an up-to-date database covering women who have the requisite skills for membership of bodies which are consulted by the government, representative organisations and company boards. This database has enabled the number of women appointed to management posts to be increased.
9. An ombudsperson has been made specifically responsible in Finland for equality issues, to ensure that national and Community legislation is applied. The results have been very convincing in many fields, especially in relation to the portrayal of women in the media. The Finnish ombudsperson deals with issues relating to the media and has as her main task the combating of human rights violations. Finland, Norway and Sweden have all extended their ombudspersons’ duties to the media, radio and television.
10. The Finnish Ombudsperson for Equality has had the idea of introducing a gender-based quota system in the committees and working groups set up at every level by the authorities. Members of such committees are appointed in such a way that the equal representation of women and men should be guaranteed.
11. In the year 2006, Finland is to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the enfranchisement of women and of their gaining entitlement to stand for election. The Finnish Parliament currently has 74 women members, equivalent to 37% of all members. Eight of the 17 ministers in the present government are women. Finnish political parties would like to have more women members.
12. Ten years ago, some female members of the Finnish Parliament set up a co-operation network with some women journalists. With the help of networks of this kind, involving female MPs from different parties, common positions are adopted with a view to improving women’s situation. The equal opportunities law passed by Finland recommends that all firms and groups of workers comprising more than 30 persons should set up equal opportunities committees.
13. A “Screening Gender” training kit has been prepared in Finland to promote new approaches among television programme producers to the portrayal of women and men. The kit, initially produced in English and German, has been so successful that additional financing has been obtained from the European Commission for its translation into French, Italian and Spanish. A CD-Rom version is also planned.
14. In Iceland, women hold a very significant position in the economic sector, and the labour market is fully open to them on the same footing as men. Iceland is one of the countries which has for decades been advocating equality between women and men. Icelandic women were actually enfranchised at the end of the 19th century, and were given the right to stand for parliament in 1919, at the same time as Swedish women.
15. What is more, Iceland was, from 1980 to 1996, the first country in the world to have a democratically elected female head of state. In 1994, a section concerning human rights was incorporated into the Icelandic Constitution, and this includes a reference to the equal rights of men and women and thus bears witness to an inalienable wish to elevate the right of the individual to the highest possible position in society.
16. In Croatia, during a fortnight of action to prevent violence against women (1998), the group B.a.B.e. wrote a song and recorded a video with young female rap singers. The song enjoyed good media coverage and publicity and was highly successful.
17. The media kit prepared by Germany’s Women Journalists’ Federation is only available in prototype form. It was designed to provide media monitoring groups with the tools they needed to subject media content to critical examination and to analysis, and to suggest ways and means of making complaints and publicising their comments more widely.
18. In France, the “Chiennes de garde” (“Watchdog”) group has complained about the injustices suffered by women. This association defends women in public life and takes a particular interest in verbal attacks on them.
19. In France, again, the Observatoire de la parité entre les femmes et les hommes (Observatory for gender parity), set up in 1995, which reports to the Prime Minister, helps to draw up public policies to promote gender equality. It is worth noting that 25 of the Observatory’s 30 experts are women.
20. The French Government recently hit out at sexist advertising in a report on the portrayal of women in advertisements. The report recommends starting work on new measures to curb excesses. The self-regulation exercised by advertisers on the basis of their system of professional ethics should be tightened up. Associations should be able to complain to the courts when advertising campaigns go too far, meaning when they infringe human dignity or show degrading images of women. In the profession, there are still people who are unwilling to acknowledge that some advertisers overstep the mark.
21. The report on women’s image in advertising suggests that the laws of 1891 and 1986 should be amended through the inclusion of specific provisions against discrimination based on gender. It also recommends that a special course on gender equality be introduced at schools of journalism.
22. In France, the content of advertising is still governed by a law adopted in 1891, which contains a provision prohibiting racial and religious discrimination, but does not lay down any measures against discrimination based on gender (ie discrimination against women). A special law was adopted in 1986 relating to the audiovisual sector, defining the concept of human dignity and prohibiting the promotion of violence in any form whatsoever.
23. In Canada in 1995, a group known as MediaWatch organised the Global Media Monitoring Project, to examine women’s portrayal and position in the media. Hundreds of volunteers from 71 countries analysed over 15,000 television, radio and newspaper reports. The survey was repeated in 2000. The group’s conclusions were that the situation had scarcely changed in those five years; there had been a slight improvement in certain cases, but some deterioration in others. In every case, general news reporting still failed to reflect women’s actual place in society.
24. The European Commission funded a study of the image of women in the media, which made important recommendations and proposals to European governments which had potential for immediate implementation. European Parliament Resolution A4-0258/97 emphasises that member states’ and European legislation protecting women from a degrading portrayal in the media is inadequate. The resolution calls for all forms of pornography in the media and in advertising to be prohibited.
B. Countries where progress has stalled, or gone into reverse
25. The first question which arises is why the process has stalled and why so little progress has been made. It has to be said that, subsequent to the Fourth World Conference on Women, little has been done by governments or media, which have thus failed to honour the commitments they made at the conference.
26. In Austria, for example, organisations and projects relating to women’s issues are at risk of having their public funding cut off. The Ministry for Women’s Affairs has even been demoted to a department of the Ministry for Social Affairs.
27. There are numerous cases of governments failing to apply the achievable recommendations of the Beijing Platform for Action. In Germany, for example, NGOs point out that the government makes absolutely no mention of “Women Oecki”, an exhaustive list of women media experts called for on many occasions during discussions well before the Fourth World Conference on Women.
28. Women constitute 52% of Spain’s population, but represent only 38% of the working population. Women hold a mere 1% of the shares in media firms. 30% of press posts are held by women, although they form 60% of the students attending schools of journalism.
C. The portrayal of women in the media
29. A very distorted image is usually given of women both in advertisements and in television serials. They are shown at work in only 8% of advertisements, which, like serials, promote certain stereotypes: while women may be successful at work, they have sad personal lives, or, if divorced, have problems with their children. Certain media (television and cinema films) depict women with careers as solitary and childless “man-eaters”. Not enough facilities exist (crèches at the workplace, for example) to enable women to work while bringing up their children.
30. In the autonomous region of Andalusia, in Spain, the Andalusian institute for women is an official body which has close links with universities. It works with many press associations. One of its tasks is to study the role of women in the media and to take positive action to ensure that women are depicted properly and that the image given of them corresponds to reality. What is more, a survey has shown that women who have had a higher education watch less television on the whole. While women in general prefer programmes which deal with people’s private lives and entertainment programmes, those with university degrees prefer news broadcasts.
31. The Czech media have managed to retain their traditional, patriarchal approach, with graphic images used in advertising which frequently go beyond what might be considered tasteful and ethical.
32. In Croatia, where the editorial policies of the media either take no account of equality or are simply anti-women, the portrayal of women is resolutely sexist, and the principle of gender equality is virtually non-existent.
33. In several post-communist countries, such as Albania, Bulgaria, Moldova and the former Soviet republics of the USSR, women are portrayed fairly negatively in the media. The media depict men as reformers, innovators, competent and courageous politicians, dynamic businessmen, and so on, while a limited role is attributed to women, who are never shown working for reform or emancipation. This of course is linked to the social and cultural heritage of the countries concerned.
34. The current crises of the media in the former Soviet republics are linked to general economic and democratic crises, the absence of instruments which can be used by civil society and the passive nature of public opinion. The media depend on their owners, and the authorities in many states bring strong pressure to bear on the free media and keep the press and national television and radio companies under control.
35. The image given of women in the media bears witness to the dramatic situation of women’s rights in that region. Women who are in employment are associated in the public mind with the old-style Soviet working women. Many editors regard freedom of expression as giving them freedom to publish everything which was previously prohibited, including pornography. The neo-liberal ideology which is taking over from the communist ideology cares nothing about active participation by women in political and economic developments, and women are beginning to be regarded by public opinion as second class creatures or as victims of the reforms. Women’s real problems, like women’s movements, are still ignored by the media. Women are portrayed in the media in stereotypical fashion, namely as wives and mothers or as sex objects.
36. In the countries of the CIS, journalism is a female profession. 80% of the members of the profession in Russia are women. Female journalists write excellent articles, including war reports. Yet many of them are not sensitive to the problems associated with women’s rights, and they consolidate the stereotypes. There are no real links between women journalists and feminist movements.
37. Training and co-operation seem vital for the region’s women journalists. The Association for Women Journalists draws up special programmes for Russian journalists and works with groups of women and with journalists from CIS countries.
38. It is clear that much progress remains to be made in every country, mainly because of a lack of political will to change the image of women in the media. While some countries have attempted to set up self-regulation machinery for media producers, governments do not grant the necessary funds. Every European country should adopt and implement a policy to prevent sexist and stereotyped images, representations and portrayals of women in the media. More bodies should be set up at European level to monitor the media and supervise the audiovisual sector.
39. A survey conducted by an Albanian group of media women found that 70% of the 200 journalists questioned thought that the press did not comply with the principles of journalistic ethics and flouted women’s rights. There is a major problem of professional ethics in the way in which women are dealt with by journalists, namely that of respect for individuals’ privacy.
40. In recent years, several Albanian NGOs dealing with women’s issues, while they have taken part in international conferences, have been unable to impose their views on the media or on society, and have not managed to initiate a debate on women’s image in the media.
II. The influence of the media
A. The media and day-to-day life
41. The influence of the media is growing, both on the decisions we take and on our perception of the world. Anyone who looks closely at most of the advertising carried by the media knows that it is usually men who are shown driving cars, whereas women promote shower gels or shampoos.
42. Women are sometimes shown naked even when the products being advertised have no connection with the human body or with hygiene. One journalist is reported to have said that legislation has scarcely done anything to prevent agencies from filling the airwaves with increasing numbers of commercials and putting up more and more posters showing naked models “so as to sell yoghurts and mobile phones”. Women are, he said, all too often presented merely as either mothers or objects.
43. The recent advent of “reality television”, which has made a huge impact in several countries, just confirms that the media are all-powerful. It is not necessary to join the debate about this new, and still poorly understood, phenomenon to see that programmes like “Loft Story” (France) and “Gran Hermano” (Spain) are partly reality and partly television, because those who take part in them take up prominent roles. Nor is this phenomenon confined to France and Spain, for similar programmes have hit the headlines in other countries.
44. The media have an enormous influence on the people who buy magazines, read newspapers, listen to the radio, watch television and surf the Internet: fashion is shaped and spread through society by all these media. The role model for present-day women is one in which physical criteria take precedence over intellectual ones, and any woman who wishes to meet the physical criteria necessarily has to make sacrifices. The consequences of such “sacrifices” may be complexes, unhappiness and even illnesses such as bulimia or anorexia (not only in girls, but also in older women). Women who strive to be attractive may suffer identity problems, resort to plastic surgery and, in some tragic cases, even commit suicide.
45. The Internet certainly offers a lot of scope to its users, particularly to women; it represents cultural, economic and social progress. Unfortunately, these new information communications technologies are frequently used for dishonest purposes by unscrupulous individuals. It did not take long for paedophiles, pornographers and sects to realise their enormous potential. As virtually no mediators or boundaries apply to communication via the Internet, anyone using it to commit unlawful or harmful activities runs less risk.
46. It is necessary to take international public opinion into account in order to understand the influence exercised by the media worldwide. Advertising has existed since the early years of the 20th century. The media change our perception of world politics, of conflicts and, in particular, of failures to honour rights (including women’s rights) in other countries and in other cultures.
B. The influence of the media on children
47. Children acquire most of their experience and knowledge from the media, which do not always faithfully reflect reality. Television, films, video games and other media may fabricate their own reality and may represent it in their own way when they publicise events. Thus they select what is closest to their own economic interests.
48. The images shown of men and women are poles apart. In advertising, for instance, women are always concerned about their physical appearance, while men are encouraged to take part in sport and to take great interest in technology and war games. Men and boys are also victims of stereotyping. Masculinity is often associated with machismo, independence, competitiveness, emotional detachment, aggressiveness and violence.
49. Children are also increasingly exposed to sexist messages devised just for adults. Thus girls and boys have a preconception of what they should be and what they can achieve.
50. If we consider the actual problems faced by society, we note the antisocial forces exerted by the repeated sending of sexist messages. Research has shown that, the more children watch television, the more they associate sexist ideas with traditional female and male roles, and the more aggressive the behaviour displayed by boys. The link between sex and violence, increasingly present in all media, from advertising to violent films, is particularly worrying at a time when society is attempting to curb violence against women.
C. The place of women in the media
51. The relationship between the media and the world of work has been changing for several years now. A few years ago, the television news was still read by a man working on his own, and later by teams of one man and one woman. All present-day television viewers know that women newsreaders often work alone now.
52. Women always have been associated with the private sphere, the household and family life. But while the modern world has changed rapidly, the image of women conveyed by the media has not really altered. The way in which the media show women reflects the current journalistic culture, based on male values.
53. Thus it is now vital to refocus the female and male ideals. Of course, the number of women in charge of companies has increased, and certain leading higher education establishments are increasingly emphasising the integration of women.
54. This, however, does not prevent the media from continuing to highlight women’s appearance rather than their skills, but the new generations of women are encountering ever greater recognition of their skills. This is a sign of a change in mentality which the media can consolidate by treating every person as equal.
55. But media management is largely in the hands of men, and it is usually men who are engaged on specialised journalism (covering employment issues, politics, economics and sport). Women report on culture, social affairs and health, issues related to children and to the disabled and other general family matters. This may be regarded as a natural choice, but in contemporary society, the various spheres of life are increasingly open to both sexes, and women work just as much in the private as in the public sphere. The conflict between the two spheres is intensifying, and women, including those who work in the media, very often have to opt for one of the two. Those who choose to be journalists frequently do so on the basis of a male model, and female journalists holding senior management posts are usually single or divorced.
56. Parents and teachers can have a more lasting influence on the development of young people than the media to which youngsters are exposed. Adults may set an example of differing female and male roles and suggest ways of resolving the conflicts. They may encourage children to take part in games requiring imagination and in activities which teach them positive, rather than negative, social values.
III. Recommended ways of improving the image of women in the media
57. The extent to which partnerships are possible in the political sphere necessarily depends on the way in which society uses partnerships in general. In a modern democratic society, the aim is nothing less than to create a new social contract under which men and women work on an equal footing and in ways which are complementary. In order to achieve this objective, men’s and women’s mentalities must change significantly.
58. The media should stop depicting women as inferior to men, and stop exploiting them as sex objects. In contrast, the media should be promoting a positive and realistic image of women. Journalists and other media representatives should realise their responsibilities in terms of presenting an image of women and men which is neither distorted nor stereotypical. Violent and degrading images of women should be eliminated. Women and men alike should receive training from both male and female instructors. Substantial efforts need to be made to obtain the requisite funding. New media equality projects should be started and financed.
59. Governments should, under their national systems for improving women’s position, set up and finance centres to monitor national media. This monitoring should extend to all media, including the new information and communications technologies.
60. Encouragement needs to be given to a strengthening of communications networks and women’s media active in gender equality work. A common programme could be set up involving the media and the Council of Europe divisions responsible for equal opportunities, to carry out research and training projects relating to the image of women in the media.
61. Emphasis must be placed on providing journalists with equality training, so as to improve their priority selection and their presentation of their subjects and to teach them how to convey a non-sexist message. In practice the media tend to focus on individuals who identify with a cause, without worrying about their gender. On the other hand, the media should give thought to the way in which they view women in general, and women politicians in particular, and take a new approach.
62. While the number of female journalists has clearly risen over the past ten years, the number of women on media management bodies remains small, and they are unable significantly to influence the policy pursued by the media. The media sector should strike a balance between the sexes at every level of decision-making. Some positive discrimination could be a means of achieving this, as could quota systems. Governments should encourage women to participate at every level of decision-making in the media and in posts of responsibility in the technological industry and on public advisory bodies.
63. Women must have access to information and communications technologies so as to make it easier for them to set up worldwide networks of their own in every field. It is nevertheless increasingly obvious that the digital divide is visible not only between north and south, but even within several countries where certain categories of women have access to the new technologies, while others are left out, a situation which merely aggravates existing disparities.
64. Governments should assign funds to, and implement, programmes which increase women’s access to resources and knowledge relating to communications, and especially to the new communications technologies, while cultural diversity and regional and local priorities and needs are respected. A public debate should also be started on the social responsibility of the media.
65. The media must undertake to introduce policies under which women will be shown as they actually are. Member states’ governments may play a role where the media are concerned, provided that they do not infringe freedom of expression, and may encourage advertisers to increase self-regulation through their system of professional ethics.
66. The media can mitigate the impact of the messages they carry by making it clear to children that they are made up and do not necessarily reflect reality. They communicate implicit and explicit values and can influence our feelings, our world view and our view of ourselves. These are important concepts if a society is to be created in which women are equal to men.
67. The European countries should draw up international ethical standards based on equality between women and men, and these could be taken into account in every aspect of communications, including media programming and the portrayal of women in the media.
68. It is also important to finance comparative studies so as to raise awareness of the need to improve the image of gender equality in the context of the preparation of communications policies.
Reporting committee: Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men
Reference to committee: Doc 8230, Reference No. 2335 of 4 November 1998
Draft recommendation unanimously adopted by the committee on 7 March 2002.
Members of the committee: Mrs Err (Chairperson), Mrs Aguiar (1st Vice-Chairperson), Mrs Keltosova (2nd Vice-Chairperson), Mrs Mikutiene (3rd Vice-Chairperson), Ms Anastassova, Mr Bakulin, Mrs Biga-Friganovic, Mrs Castro (Mrs López González), Mrs Cryer, Mr Dalgaard, Mrs Dromberg, Mrs Druziuk, Ms Fogler, Mrs Freitag, Mrs Frimannsdóttir, Mr Gaburro, Mrs Granlund, Ms Gülek, Ms Hajiyeva, Ms Herczog, Mrs Hornikova, Mr Juri, Mrs Katseli, Mrs Kestelijn-Sierens, Mr Kiely, Ms Konglevoll, Mrs Kryemadhi, Mr Mahmood, Mr Olteanu (Mrs Cliveti), Mrs Paegle, Mrs Paoletti Tangheroni, Mrs Patarkalishvili, Ms Patereu, Ms Pericleous-Papadopoulos, Mr Pintat, Mr Popovski, Mr Pullicino Orlando, Mrs Roudy, Mrs Rupprecht, Mrs Wurm, Ms Yarygina, Mrs Zafferani, Mrs Zapfl-Helbling, Mrs Zwerver.
N.B. The names of the members who took part in the meeting are printed in italics.
Secretaries of the committee: Mrs Nollinger, Ms Kostenko