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Report | Doc. 39 | 15 September 1952

Work of the Brussels Treaty Organisation between May, 1948 and September, 1952



1. International Labour Conventions - 4
2. Recommendations of the International Labour Organisation - 5
3. I. L. 0 . Industrial Committee Resolutions - 5
4. Social Security - 6
a. Bilateral Conventions - 6
b. Multilateral Convention - 6
c. Application of Conventions - 7
d. Model Convention 7
e. Military Service and Mobilisation - 7
f. Other subjets - 8
5. Manpower - 8
a. Student Employees - 8
b. Frontier Workers - 8
c. Cooperation between employment services - 9
d. Industrial Safety and Health - 10
e. Exchange of Young Workers - 10
f. Vocational Guidance - 11
6. Relations between public authorities and employers' and workers' organisations - 11
7. Statistics - 11
8. Other subjects - 11


1. Health Control over air and sea traffic - 13
2. Pharmaceutical products - 14
3. Health Control of foodstuffs, drinking water, sewage, etc - 14
4. Reciprocal recognition of medical qualifications - 15
5. Visits of health personnel - 15
6. Protection of the Civil Population in time of war from a health point of view - 15
7. Other subjects - 16



1. Recommendations - 17
2. Special studies - 18
a. Causal relations of certain diseases with war service - 18
b. war services for the war-disabled - 18
c. Comparative table of pension rates - 19
d. Uniform schedule of disablement percentages - 19
3. Future work of the W a r Pensions Committee - 20


1. General principles - 21
2. Visits of experts - 21
3. Glossary - 21
4. Problems of which the study has been completed - 21
5. Problems under study - 22

1. Introduction


Article II of the Brussels Treaty defined the purpose of co-operation in social matters between the signatory Powers as follows :

" To promote the attainment of a higher standard of living by their peoples and to develop, on corresponding lines, the social and other related services of their countries. "

The Social Committees set up to implement the Brussels Treaty devoted, therefore, a large part of their efforts, in the first place,

1. to bringing social conditions as far as possible into line in the five countries;
2. to ensuring that, in any one signatory country, the nationals of the other four countries should receive treatment on a national basis.

The present report, after outlining the machinery for social cooperation between the Five, surveys the different spheres of this collaboration in turn, in matters of general social policy, of public health, of social and medical assistance, of war pensions and of the rehabilitation and resettlement of the disabled.

1.2. Machinery for Cooperation in Social Matters between the five Countries

Social cooperation between the five countries has been promoted by four main Committees :

1. the Social Committee;
2. the Public Health Committee;
3. the War Pensions Committee; composed of experts from the Ministries of Labour, of National Insurance, of Public Health and of ex-Servicemen or War Pensions,
4. the Joint Social-Public Health-War Pensions Committee responsible for the particular study of the problem of rehabilitation and resettlement of the disabled.

These Committees are served by standing Sub-Committees of Experts in matters of social security, manpower, industrial safety and health, and proprietary medicines, and by ad hoc sub-committees on the control of foodstuffs, statistical methods, etc.

Furthermore, Liaison Sections have been set up in at least three technical Ministries in each country (Labour, Public Health, War Pensions) with bi-lingual staff in touch with each other by telephone, telegraph and correspondence. Their functions are :

1. to ensure the forwarding and translation of documents exchanged between the Ministries ;
2. to establish useful mutual contacts, in particular with a view to visits of personnel, arrangements for meetings, etc.
3. in a general way, to co-ordinate, on a national level and within the organisation of the Ministry concerned, the activities undertaken in application of the Brussels Treaty.

Finally, visits of Government officials have been organised by some Committees to enable members of the administration in each country to get to know the structure and methods of corresponding administrations in other countries.

Recommendations are submitted to the Brussels Treaty Permanent Commission in London, which, in the event of approval, forwards them to the five Governments for any necessary action.

2. Social Policy in general

2.1. International Labour Conventions

Article II of the Brussels Treaty states that the five Powers will " consult with the object of achieving the earliest possible application of recommendations of immediate practical interest, relating to social matters, adopted with their approval in the specialised agencies ".

A systematic study has therefore been made of the application of the Conventions adopted by the International Labour Conference.

This study has clearly revealed the important fact that in matters of fundamental social policy the five countries have achieved a similarity of approach and a substantial measure of harmony in their attitude towards, and their implementation of, the International Labour Conventions. This is not clearly shown by the simple records of ratifications, since there are cases in which ratification is hindered by technical considerations which do not affect the substantial implementation of the Convention in question.

In addition, the examination has had certain important and valuable practical results :

a. cEach national administration has had to carry out a full and comprehensive review of its attitude towards all the International Labour Conventions adopted from the beginning. Some of these have now ceased to conform with modern conditions, but the examination has in fact resulted in the ratification of certain Conventions and expedited the consideration of others. This process is not yet complete and a further substantial number of ratifications can be expected.
b. In cases where particular countries have had difficulties over the interpretation or the application of particular Conventions, helpful advice has been forthcoming or offered by other governments.
c. lThe governments have been able to exchange views and, in some cases, to formulate a common attitude on the problem of revising Conventions which are now largely out-of-date.
d. lThe representatives have been able, over a wide field, to get information on the legislation, facilities, and services existing in each other's countries. This has indicated certain fields in which more detailed studies may prove helpful and on which work has already begun.

The above-mentioned Conventions are regularly reviewed by the Social Committee. There have been a resultant 14 new ratifications in 1950 and 22 in 1951.

2.2. Recommendations of the International Labour Organisation

The Social Committee has also undertaken a survey of the application of the Recommendations of the I. L. 0.

The Groups of Recommendations which deal with industrial safety and welfare, administration of social legislation, general conditions of labour, the employment of children, young persons and women, employment services and unemployment, the International Seamen's Code, migration, and statistics, have been examined by the Committee.

Particular attention has been paid to the Group of Recommendations concerning employment services for young people. Problems of these services, such as staff and staff training, the scope of the services, advisory committees, vocational guidance, registration and placing, and welfare, have been examined by the Committee. Arising out of this, a special joint study has been made of the placing of young workers over 18.

International cooperation in the vocational training of adults, which is dealt with in International Labour Recommendation No. 88, has also been the subject of special study. Information has been exchanged between the administrations concerned on the organisation of vocational training, legislation, financing, etc. It has now been decided to exchange information about the general policies of the five countries for the future development of vocational training. Agreement in principle has been reached on the exchange of vocational training personnel between the Five.

2.3. I. L. O. Industrial Committee Resolutions

Certain of the Resolutions adopted by I. L. 0. Industrial Committees have been studied on the same lines as the International Labour Conventions, and Recommendations. These are the Industrial Committee Resolutions dealing with :

1. Employment and Unemployment. It was found that the Resolutions examined under this head were for the most part applied in the five countries.
2. Employment of Children and Young People. A useful comparative study was made on questions of medical examination for physical fitness vocational training, age of admission to employment, etc., with special reference to employment in coalmining.

2.4. Social Security

2.4.1. Bilateral Conventions.

Article II of the Brussels Treaty states that the five countries will " endeavour to conclude as soon as possible conventions with each other in the sphere of social security ".

At the time of the signature of the Treaty (March, 1948), no Conventions were in force. Today (September, 1952), out of the 10 Conventions needed to complete the network of bilateral Conventions between the five countries, six are in force and another will enter into force shortly.

2.4.2. Multilateral Convention.

On the 7th November, 1949 the five Foreign Ministers signed a Multilateral Convention on Social Security which linked together the Bilateral. Agreements and made provision for people who have worked or lived in more than two of the five countries.

The Multilateral and Bilateral Conventions together establish the principle that the respective Social Security schemes shall not impose any nationality conditions, but shall treat all nationals of the five countries alike.

They also provide :

1. For contributions paid under various national schemes to be aggregated for purposes of benefit;
2. For specified benefits to continue to be paid when people move to another country ;
3. For providing, in one country, benefits in cash and kind to dependents of a person employed in another.

The Multilateral Convention, which has entered into force between the five countries, will be given practical effect when the network of bilateral conventions is completed.

2.4.3. Application of Conventions.

Difficulties which have been encountered in the interpretation and execution of the Multilateral Convention and the Bilateral Conventions are in the process of being settled by the five countries. Such questions as sickness insurance benefits for workers temporarily in a country other than that in which they are insured, and the recovery of unpaid contributions in cases where the debtor is in the territory of a country other than the creditor country, are being dealt with at present.

2.4.4. Model Convention.

The five countries have completed their work on a Model Convention which could be used as a basis for all future bilateral conventions on social security. This Model Convention is based on the principles already adopted in previous agreements and will clarify the form of future conventions by adopting a clear and simple text; allowance is made for alternative clauses in accordance with the circumstances and legislation in the various countries.

The Model Convention constitutes a working document to be used as a guide in concluding future bilateral agreements. It has now been approved by the Social Committee and transmitted for information to the I. L. 0. and the Council of Europe.

The only existing bilateral Convention that will be modified as a result of the adoption of the Model Convention is the Franco-British one.

An additional clause which concerns international transport workers is under study and will be later included in the Model Convention.

2.4.5. Military Service and Mobilisation.

Social security problems connected with military service and mobilisation are also being studied by the expert sub-committee concerned. A recommendation concerning the payment of benefits to the dependents of an insured person who performs his military service in another of the Brussels Treaty countries has been submitted to the five Governments.

2.4.6. Other subjects.

These include :

Social security for university students ;
Benefits for migrant workers who have contracted industrial diseases;
Social security legislation in relation to proprietary medicines ;
Social security for river boatmen and other international transport workers;
Social security for artistes.

2.5. Manpower

2.5.1. Student Employees.

In order to encourage and facilitate exchanges of student employees (that is to say, nationals of one of the five countries going to the territory of one of the others for the purpose of improving their knowledge of the language and their occupational knowledge by taking employment with an employer) and to establish the principles by which such exchanges should be regulated, a Multilateral Convention was submitted to the Foreign Ministers for signature on 16th April, 1950.

It deals with the remuneration of student employees, the duration of employment authorisations (which, in general, will be for not more than a year, though they may be prolonged for a further six months in exceptional cases) and with means of regulating the volume of admissions of student employees to the various countries. This Convention is now in force between the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

The five Governments have also agreed to facilitate the exchanges of student employees either by establishing a central agency to supervise the application of the Convention or by other appropriate means, with the help of organisations concerned with such exchanges.

2.5.2. Frontier Workers.

In order to facilitate the movement of frontier workers (that is to say, nationals of the five countries who, while continuing to be domiciled in the frontier zone of the territory of one of the countries, to which they return every day, are engaged in paid employment in the adjoining frontier zone of the territory of another of the Powers) and to establish the principles by which the wages and conditions of work of frontier workers should be regulated, a Multilateral Convention was submitted to the Foreign Ministers for signature on 16th April, 1950.

It lays down that frontier workers' cards will be issued free of charge and that though the issue and renewal of a worker's card is at first dependent on the state of the labour market of the employing country, the renewal of his card becomes automatic after five years of continuous work there, so long as he satisfies the conditions of the local bilateral agreement.

The Convention also lays down the principles to be followed for payment of frontier labour. These workers will receive, for equivalent work, pay equal to that received by nationals of the country of employment. They will also receive the same treatment as regards conditions of work as the nationals of the employing country.

Finally, the question of unemployment benefit is also regulated. Except in a few specified cases, frontier workers will receive the same unemployment benefits as workers living in their country of residence.

This Convention has now entered into force in all five countries.

2.5.3. Cooperation between employment services.

The five countries recently started a scheme for cooperation between their employment services.

For workers, this will mean an extension, covering the other Brussels Treaty countries, of the opportunity of employment away from their home towns, and for employers, an opportunity to obtain workers from wider sources than their own country when a shortage exists.

Lists of vacant jobs which can suitably be filled by workers from abroad arc exchanged between the five countries. For the present, the lists cover only those industrial and commercial occupations in which there is a constant demand for labour, and in which the risk of unemployment is negligible. Each placing is, of course, subject to the normal arrangements covering the entry of foreign workers into the various countries.

The vacancies are brought to the notice of workers by the local Employment Services in the five countries who make sure, to the best of their ability, that a worker taking employment abroad possesses the degree of skill required by the employer. The decision to engage a worker rests, however, with the employer, no formal responsibility falling upon the Employment Services. Full information about pay, conditions of work, living conditions, etc., is given and it is the responsibility of the worker's National Employment Service to ensure that he has full details of available accommodation and its type and cost.

These arrangements which will, for the time being, be applied on a limited scale, will make available to individual workers and employers who are interested an official means of finding out about jobs and manpower available in the countries of the other Brussels Treaty Powers, without their having to rely on private contacts.

It is hoped that the organisation of this cooperation and the establishment of direct contact between the employment services of the five countries may contribute to the solution of other manpower problems arising in the future.

The working of the scheme of manpower exchanges is reviewed at each meeting of the Manpower Sub-Committee. Such questions as types of vacancies offered, application forms, time-lags in arranging employment, are studied.

The costs of bringing in foreign manpower have also been studied. A recommendation that Chancery dues on the necessary entry visas should be abolished by the three countries which still claim them from workers coming from the other Brussels Treaty countries has been accepted, and arrangements are being made bilaterally to put the recommendation into force.

Visits of experts between the five countries to study the organisation of the different employment services have taken place.

2.5.4. Industrial Safety and Health.

As a result of preliminary work on safety devices for dangerous machinery, the Social Committee has now set up a Sub-Committee on Industrial Safety and Health.

This Sub-Committee is concerned not only to reach agreement on safety standards for specific types of machinery, etc., but to raise the general standards of industrial safety in the five countries.

1. Exchanges of information between factory inspectorates. The Sub-Committee has arranged for exchanges of information between the factory inspectorates of the five countries on common problems of industrial safety, such as, for example, dangers arising from the manufacture and use of berylium derivatives and chemical products for use in agriculture; the revision of safety regulations applicable to electric plant, etc.
2. Labelling of injurious products for use in industry. The Sub-Committee is studying the problems involved in the labelling of injurious products imported or exported between the five countries, with a view to the protection of persons who come into contact with them at all stages of their transport and use.
3. Safety devices for dangerous machinery. The Sub-Committee has made various proposals for the improvement of safety devices in woodcutting machinery and acetelyne generators. Safety devices for power presses are being studied and it is planned to select further types of dangerous machinery for examination at future sessions.

2.5.5. Exchange of Young Workers.

In 1949, the Brussels Treaty Manpower Sub-Committee had agreed on the value of certain young workers who did not come within definition of student employees, doing a stage abroad. The question has since been studied by this Sub-Committee in conjunction with the Youth Sub-Committee.

These two Sub-Committees are now cooperating in arranging trial exchanges between industrial firms in their countries.

2.5.6. Vocational Guidance.

The Manpower Sub-Committee has studied the question of disseminating information about careers to young people and their parents. Publications on this subject are being exchanged.

The Manpower Sub-Committee delegations intend to exchange notes on the part played by employment services in giving vocational guidance, with the intention of studying the part played by public and private organisations in vocational guidance and in the dissemination of information about employment opportunities.

2.6. Relations between Public Authorities and Employers' and Workers' Organisations

The Social Committee is studying the relations between public authorities and the employers' and Avorkers' organisations, particularly in connection with relations within the undertaking, so that countries which have only just adopted legislation creating works councils may profit from the experience acquired by countries which have had these institutions for some time.

A collective report is now complete on methods of cooperation within the undertaking. Methods of cooperation at the level of industry and at the inter-occupational level are being reviewed.

2.7. Statistics

A Working Party of statistical experts of the five countries is examining the possibility of harmonising statistics relating to wages, employment and unemployment, and is studying certain other aspects of labour statistics.

2.8. Other subjects

These include :

Payment of civil retirement pensions in another Brussels Treaty country;
Regular exchanges of views on problems of social policy currently under discussion in other international organisations;
Social services for migrants;
Employment of older workers and part-time employment.
Inspection of labour services;
Recruitment of national and foreign labour for work in coal mines and age of admission to mines;
The human factor in industry;

3. Public Health

3.1. Health Control over Air and Sea Traffic

As from 1st February, 1950, the five countries have become, in the matter of health control of air communications, one single area known administratively between them as “ the excepted area ”.

New regulations were issued in each country on that date, the effect of which is that :

a. Any aircraft which begins its flight at any place within the “ excepted area ” is not in normal circumstances subject to health control on its arrival at any other place within the “ excepted area ”. This does away with the Aircraft Declaration of Health (by the commander of the aircraft) and with the Personal Declarations of Origin and Health by the passengers.
b. An aircraft bound for the “ excepted area ” which begins its flight outside that area, and its passengers, are subjected to health control only at the first place of touching down within the “ excepted area ” 
			This system will he changed after 31st October, 1952.

The “ excepted area ” may be restricted by the Ministers of Health by public notice, to exclude temporarily any of the member countries or part of them in which there may be an epidemic.

Each country has furnished to the others particulars of all diseases notifiable in its territory, together with a list of its main airports and particulars of the medical officers in charge, with details of sanitary equipment at each airport.

On 1st March, 1951 a scheme for the unification of health control of sea communications between the five countries came into force, which has certain features in common with the scheme for the control of aircraft.

Allowance being made for any necessary administrative adaptation by each of the Five, the Maritime Declaration of Health is waived in the case of all ships, whatever their flag, plying between the ports of the five countries (including the Atlantic and Mediterranean ports of France) on condition, however, that these ships do not call at the port of any other country (including Gibraltar) on the way.

Recent changes in international legislation has made further consideration of the Aircraft General Declaration of Health necessary. A recommendation on the subject has been put forward to W. H. 0. for transmission to I. C. A. 0.

3.2. Pharmaceutical Products

A sub-committee of experts is examining a number of questions concerning conditions for the manufacture, testing, sale, etc. of pharmaceutical products. A preliminary survey of the various national legislations on these subjects has been made and, as a result, the sub-committee has formulated several recommendations to the five Governments.

The labelling of medicines is being studied by this sub-committee. It has defined a number of principles which could form the basis for an attempt at standardisation of labelling.

The utilisation of pharmaceutical products under social security schemes is being studied jointly with the Social Security Sub- Committee. This study includes an exchange of detailed statistical information required for an assessment of costs involved in supplying proprietary medicines under social security schemes and a comparative study of the prices of pharmaceutical products in the five countries.

In the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the work of this expert sub-committee has resulted in the tabling of a draft law on the control of pharmaceutical products.

Other subjects which the sub-committee plans to study include the distribution and allocation of rare drugs.

3.3. Health Control of Foodstuffs, Drinking Water, Sewage, etc.

The standardisation of methods of health control of foodstuffs is to be further examined by an expert sub-committee in the autumn of 1952.

Useful studies of the standards of purity of drinking water have been made, particularly as regards standardisation of methods of analysis and acceptable standards of quality.

The question of sewage has been left for settlement by bilateral conventions.

The pollution of waterways passing through two or more of the Brussels Treaty countries is to be considered in 1953.

Experts concerned with the control of anti-venereal medicaments have met and compared methods and results concerning the therapeutic value of their medicaments. Exchanges of information on organic arsenicals and penicillin products have been initiated.

3.4. Reciprocal Recognition of Medical Qualification*

The problem of the reciprocal recognition of medical and para-medical qualifications between the five countries has been studied, but agreement was not found to be possible.

3.5. Visits of Health Personnel

Very useful results have been obtained from the visits of health personnel organised during the past three years, during which period doctors and specialists from the Brussels Treaty countries travelled in the f i v e countries to learn about current methods and various questions of particular interest to them, as well as the general administrative structure of public health services in those countries.

3.6. Protection of the Civil Population in time of War from a Health point of view

It was on the initiative of the Public Health Committee that the problems of civil defence were brought up within the framework of the Brussels Treaty.

Questions of a purely medical character concerning the protection of civil populations in time of war are being dealt with by the Public Health Committee, whose reports on these subjects are presented to a newlyconstituted policy making body : the Civil Defence Conference.

The medical questions to be studied were of so technical a character that it was necessary to set up working parties of scientists with clearly defined tasks for the various subjects. These working parties report back to the Public Health Committee at regular intervals and have made a number of important recommendations to the five Governments.

3.7. Other Subjects

These include :

Exchange of information on safeguards against mistakes in the use of " gas " cylinders in anaesthesia;
Exchange of information on immunisation, regulations pertaining to streptomycin and narcotics;
The therapeutic value of spa treatment;
Standards of health required of immigrant workers, as far as the prevention of tuberculosis is concerned, within the Brussels Treaty countries ;
Medical aspects of rehabilitation;
Possibility of a system of reimbursement for medical treatment given by one country to nationals of one of the other four countries; the extent to which this treatment can be provided;
Burns in the home;
Specific subjects connected with cancer.

4. Social and Medical Assistance

On the 7th November, 1949, the five Foreign Ministers signed a Social and Medical Assistance Convention, establishing an important new principle as regards treatment of persons who are in need of assistance in any of the five countries. The broad effect of the Convention is to require each country to give both financial and medical assistance to indigent nationals of any of the five countries on the same footing as its own nationals. The cost of such assistance will be borne by the country of residence without repayment by the country of origin.

The powers of the country of residence to repatriate to his country of origin a national of one of the other four, by reason of the costs of the assistance being granted to him, are henceforward strictly limited; in particular, repatriation can only be considered in cases of persons having lived in the country for a few years and having no family ties in the country of residence.

À Supplementary Agreement on the application of the Convention was submitted to the Foreign Ministers for signature on 16th April, 1950.

The Convention is now in force between Belgium, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.

5. War Pensions

The Consultative Council of the Brussels Treaty Organisation had instructed the War Pensions Committee to endeavour to " harmonise, for the benefit of the interests concerned, the war pensions schemes of the five countries ".

After two years' work, it was realised that complete harmonisation or unification of the war pensions schemes and rates was not practicable so long as greater progress had not been made in the direction of closer economic cooperation between the five countries. The War Pensions Committee had, therefore, to limit its work to a general review of war pensions legislation in the five countries and to an endeavour to bring existing systems into line in certain restricted fields.

5.1. Recommendations

Sixteen recommendations have been adopted by the Committee, the effect of which would bo to introduce uniform practice in certain fields. As a result, national legislations have, in certain cases, been amended.

Among these recommendations may be noted the following :

1. The grant of medical treatment free of charge by any one Brussels Treaty Power to the war-disabled nationals of any other Member State normally residing on its territory, including the supply and maintenance of artificial limbs and other appliances necessitated by war disablement. This recommendation has been accepted by the five Governments.
2. Compensation for civilian war victims : after study of this question, the Committee agreed that harmonisation of legislation was not possible, owing to the completely different basis of such legislation in the different countries and therefore recommended that, as has already been done in certain cases, problems of compensation should be dealt with by bilateral agreement. Progress in these bilateral negotiations has already been made.
3. Other recommendations made concern :
The right of war-disabled persons to draw their pensions wherever they reside in the five countries ;
Priority cards and entitlement to reduced fares;
Payment of war pensions during hospital treatment;
Dependents' pensions;
Date from which the pension should be paid;
Claims for revision of fixed pensions ;
Suspension or forfeiture of pension rights ;
Application of war pensions legislation to :
a. Foreigners who have served in the national army;
b. Nationals who have served in a foreign (allied) army;
Time limit for the filing of claims ;
Provisions for the welfare of war orphans ;
Payment of compensation to hostages and their dependents.

The action taken by the five Governments to implement the above-mentioned recommendations is reviewed at each meeting of the Committee.

5.2. Special Studies

5.2.1. Causal relations of certain diseases with war service.

A very detailed study has been made of this subject covering, e.g., tuberculosis, cancer, diabetes, etc. The examination of cardiovascular disorders in amputees and of arterial diseases has still to be completed.

A comprehensive report has been drawn up, which shows that a common point of view exists in the five countries on certain general principles governing basic entitlement, but that differences in the respective national pension law rule out the attainment of a higher degree of harmonisation.

The Committee has therefore recommended that the medical authorities in each country make the fullest possible use of the information contained in the report.

5.2.2. Welfare services for the war-disabled.

UA survey of national measures taken in this field has been completed, and it has been agreed that there is scope for further help and guidance to pensioners on a variety of matters.

Visits have been made to the United Kingdom to study the functioning of the " Pensioner's Friend " services. As a result, the Committee has recommended that each country should continue its efforts, with the valuable aid of the voluntary organisations, to ensure that all war victims receive not only all the compensation to which they are entitled under the respective national socio-legal provisions, but also all possible practical social help, in its widest sense. This recommendation has been accepted by the five Governments.

5.2.3. Comparative table of pension rates.

A comparative table of pension rates in the five countries has been drawn up; this is brought up to date at regular intervals.

5.2.4. Uniform schedule of disablement percentages.

In examining the possibilities of harmonising the regulations governing the grant of war pensions in each of the five countries, the Committee had to consider not only the principles governing the assessment of war disablement, but also the medical basis of such assessment.

Exchange of information revealed that the method of arriving at the appropriate assessment varied in important respects between the countries. In some instances the degree of disablement is fixed by schedules of a detailed and legally binding character; in others, the legal schedules are comparatively short and confined to major injuries.

The Committee felt that the medical assessment of the same kind of injury or disease which is similar in all respects ought in equity to be assessed the same in all countries, but it was also recognised that the application of the medical assessments must necessarily be subject to the differing national pensions laws of the five countries. The Committee also considered that the medical basis of assessment could perhaps be applied to other types of compensation schemes for disablement, notably in the industrial field.

Since the assessment of disablement depends to a very large extent on expert medical and surgical knowledge, the Committee decided to set up a sub-committee composed of experienced doctors to consider the problem.

As a result of their work, a draft uniform scale of assessment for percentages of disablement has now been completed, covering over 600 disabilities. Considering the difficulties involved, the medical assessments adopted reflect a remarkable degree of harmony and it is felt that the schedule represents a satisfying degree of common scientific thought whilst also bearing in mind the complicated legal and administrative factors in the respective countries.

The Committee, therefore, recognising that the differences in the present legislations of the five countries do not allow full adoption of a uniform schedule of assessment, has recommended to the Permanent Commission that the five Governments should ensure that this first effort at standardisation of assessment in the international field should become an effective instrument in achieving the common aim of a similar medical assessment for the same injuries or diseases. This recommendation has been accepted by the five Governments.

The Committee also hopes that, in certain cases, it may be possible to use these expert findings as the medical basis for assessing disablement in respect of industrial injuries.

5.2.5. Future work of the War Pensions Committee

The first phase of the work of the War Pensions Committee has thus been completed and it has been decided that it should enter a state of suspended animation until such time as the Permanent Commission should consider it necessary for further meetings to be called.

Exchanges of documentation, the bringing up to date of reports, etc., will continue however, through the medium of the Liaison Sections (see page 2) which will function as before.

6. Rehabilitation and Resettlement of the Disabled

6.1. General Principles

The Joint Committee has defined the general principles of a policy for the rehabilitation and resettlement of the disabled and drawn up a recommendation to the five Governments as follows :

" The Governments of the signatory countries of the Brussels Treaty are invited to recognise that it is their duty to take the necessary steps to ensure, by all means within their power, the functional and professional rehabilitation and resettlement of disabled persons, whatever the cause or origin of their infirmity ".

Ten general principles were also formulated to put this recommendation into effect.

The Committee takes stock regularly of how far these principles are being put into operation, particularly as regards methods of rehabilitation in hospitals, and the first stage of vocational training. It has become clear that several countries will still have to make an important effort if they are to reach the standard agreed upon. It is obvious that this involves a long and often costly process of reorganisation and readjustment, but the countries are going ahead with it as fast as possible.

Some necessary legislation has been passed; a number of new rehabilitation centres have been set up in the five countries; and existing facilities have been increased.

6.2. Visits of Experts

Visits of experts between the five countries are taking place and are proving of considerable practical value. Reports are made on the conclusion of all such visits and are considered by the Committee.

6.3. Glossary

A glossary of the technical terms used in the two working languages of the Brussels Treaty Organisation has been completed.

6.4. Problems of which the study has been completed

The Committee has completed its study of the following problems; the results of the recommendations it has made on them to the five Governments are regularly reviewed :

6.4.1. Réadaptation et rééducation professionnelles des jeunes infirmes congénitaux ou de bas âge.

A recommendation has been accepted by the five Governments on the principles which should govern their action in this field.

6.4.2. Rehabilitation and resettlement of the blind.

The Committee has recommended to Governments that appropriate measures be taken for the educational and vocational training of blind children and young persons, for the rehabilitation and vocational training of adult blind persons, and for the placing in employment of the blind.

6.5. Problems under study

The Committee is either already studying, or plans to study, the following problems :

6.5.1. Rehabilitation and resettlement of consumptives.

The Committee has studied national practice on this question and also the plans made in the five countries for improving the rehabilitation and resettlement of consumptives. Four recommendations to Governments have been formulated, and a summary of the conclusions which can be approved by the Joint Committee at the present stage is being drawn up.

6.5.2. Rehabilitation and employment of the deaf.

An exchange of information has taken place on such subjects as medical treatment, hearing aids, vocational training, and suitable employment.

The problem of deaf children is to be the subject of a special study, particular attention being paid to all aspects of their education.

6.5.3. Artificial limbs and orthopaedic appliances.

The medical rehabilitation of amputees and the construction and supply of artificial limbs are to be studied by an expert working party which will meet in the autumn of 1952 to consider this very technical problem.

6.5.4. Special problems arising from the rehabilitation and employment of epileptics.

A preliminary exchange of information has taken place on this subject, in particular as regards registration of epileptics and the size of the problem involved, the organisation of the fight against epilepsy, and the type and conditions of work most suited to epileptics.


Article III of the Brussels Treaty, signed by Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom in 1948, bound the five signatory Powers to

" make every effort in common to lead their peoples towards a better understanding of the principles which form the basis of their common civilisation and to promote cultural exchanges by conventions between themselves or by other means. "

Machinery set up to implement this undertaking consists of the Cultural Committee, which is the central co-ordinating body for cultural co-operation between the Five, together with its Sub-Committees which deal with particular aspects of this co-operation.

The Sub-Committees are :

The Sub-Committee for Youth.
The Sub-Committee for Education.
The Sub-Committee for Non-Commercial Films.
The Sub-Committee for the Cultural Identity Card.
The Sub-Committee for Government Officials.

Expert working parties on such questions as television, equivalence of diplomas, travel documents, etc., are also convened as required.

The Cultural Committee and its Sub- Committees are formed from officials of the Ministries and Departments concerned with educational and cultural matters in the five countries and from experts from various organisations closely connected with these subjects.

Recommendations are submitted by the Cultural Committee to the Brussels Treaty Permanent Commission which, if it approves the recommendations, submits them to the five Governments for action.

The five countries also co-operate in cultural matters by means of the bilateral Cultural Conventions which have been concluded between them. Mixed Commissions have been set up under these Conventions which deal with exchanges of professors, teachers, research workers, students, schoolchildren, etc., with study grants and with exchanges of scientific, educational and art exhibitions, etc.

A review of the work of the Cultural Committees to date follows.



1. Brussels Treaty Organisation scheme - 26
2. Extension to the Council of Europe - 27


3. Teachers'Courses and Teachers'Brochure - 28
4. Educational Inspectors' Visits - 29
5. Equivalence of Diplomas - 29
a. School-leaving Certificates - 29
b. University degrees and diplomas - 30
c. Effectus Civilis 30
6. Brochure on entrance to universities - 30
7. Work of I. A. E. S. T. E - 31
8. Raising of the School-leaving Age. Educational and Vocational guidance - 31
9. Teaching of languages - 32
10. Reorganisation Projects in Higher Education - 32
11. Appointment of Foreign Teachers - 32

8.3. Y O U TH

12. Courses and Meetings for Young People - 32
13. Travel Guides for Young People - 33
14. Exchanges of Young Workers - 34
15. Collective Passports - 34
16. Camping - 35
17. Survey of Youth Activities - 35


8.5. FILMS

18. Non-Commercial Films - 36
a. Exchanges of information on production - 37
b. Exchanges of information on distribution - 37
c. Visits of technicians - 37
d. Importation of non-commercial films - 37
e. Joint production of a film on landscape painting - 38
f. Exchanges of films for non-commercial purposes - 38
g. Standard Index Card - 39
19. Newsreels - 39

8.6. RADIO - 39

8.7. TELEVISION - 40


20. Resolutions on Cultural Free Trade - 40
21. UNESCO Convention 41






9. Cultural Identity Card

9.1. Brussels Treaty Organisation Scheme

A Cultural Identity Card was instituted by the Brussels Treaty Organisation in 1950. This gives certain facilities to nationals of each of the five Treaty countries travelling in the other four for cultural purposes.

The aim of the scheme is to encourage travelling and residence abroad for selected teachers, research workers, artists, scientists, advanced and technical students and national youth leaders, who wish to visit the Brussels Treaty countries to improve their professional knowledge or for research work.

The advantages and facilities offered in each country to holders of the Card are printed in a handbook which is issued at the same time. The following examples, varying according to the country concerned, may be mentioned : free or reduced price entry to museums and exhibitions; reduction in prices of tickets for concerts and theatrical performances; facilities for consulting libraries and archives; facilities for obtaining or prolonging residence permits; authorisation to visit certain scholastic institutions and scientific establishments ; admission to university restaurants; remission of fees at some educational and cultural institutions; facilities for obtaining foreign currency and reduced transport rates.

To ensure that the advantages offered are not lightly granted,-each country issues a limited number of cards. It is planned gradually both to extend the facilities and to increase the number of holders; so far, increased facilities have been granted in the United Kingdom and the number of holders increased by the addition of two new categories, i. e., technical student employees and leaders of youth movements.

The card itself, which is identical in all five countries, is printed in three languages— French, English and Dutch. It is issued free, after consideration of each individual application, in the four Continental countries by the Ministries of Education (Cultural Identity Card Section) and in the United Kingdom by various authorities. The Card carries particulars of the holder, his passport number, photograph, etc., and an embossed stamp representing the Brussels Hôtel de Ville. It is valid for one year from the date of issue.

As the main purpose of the Cultural Identity Card is to encourage the movement of persons within the five countries, it is not available for use in the holder's own country.

The Cultural Identity Card scheme is reviewed at regular intervals by experts from the five countries.

9.2. Extension to the Council of Europe

In October, 1951, the Cultural Committee considered the question of a possible extension of the Brussels Treaty Cultural Identity Card scheme to member States of the Council of Europe.

It was decided that the Committee would be prepared to :

Put at the disposal of the Council of Europe the experience it had acquired in this connection;
Give favourable consideration to requests from Council of Europe member countries to participate in the Cultural Identity Card scheme; any country joining the scheme must, in particular, first agree to the reciprocal granting of the rights conferred.

Italy, Norway, the Saar, Turkey and Sweden having expressed the wish to join the Brussels Treaty scheme, the facilities which they were prepared to grant on a reciprocal basis were approved by the competent bodies of the Council of Europe; the Permanent Commission of the Brussels Treaty Organisation then agreed to the inclusion of these five countries in the scheme.

The acceding Council of Europe countries having accepted the Brussels Treaty Organisation regulations for the issue and administration of the Cultural Identity Card, the extended scheme came into operation in all ten countries on 15th July, 1952.

10. Education

10.1. Teachers' Courses and Handbook for Teachers

A course for 60 teachers from the Brussels Treaty countries took place at Ashridge College in the United Kingdom in August, 1949. This was the first of a series of such courses and aimed to clear the ground for future co-operation between teachers of the five countries. Groups of teachers were formed to study the influence of language, history, the arts and sciences in Western European civilisation; two further groups examined the influence of the family and the problems of education and livelihood.

In order that the results of these studies might be collated and utilised, a Steering Committee was formed which submitted a collective report on the course. This Committee held further meetings to prepare the 1950 course, which was held at Sèvres in France. This course continued the work of the 1949 meeting in defining aspects of the culture and ideals common to Western European civilisation with a view to incorporating these into teaching methods in the five countries, thus helping children to become good citizens of a European community.

The 1951 course was held in the Netherlands at which the work of the two previous courses was completed.

One of the results of these courses has been the compiling of a handbook for teachers in all categories of education in the five countries, containing advice and information on how to bring the children they teach to understand the common culture which unites their countries and bring home to them the general qualities necessary if they are to form a European community.

The final text of this brochure is under consideration by an editing committee and will be published shortly.

A new cycle of courses began in 1952 with a course in the United Kingdom on the Education of the Young Worker.

10.2. Educational Inspectors' Visits

Educational inspectors from the other four countries met in the United Kingdom in 1949 for the first of a series of such visits to be organised by the five countries. They visited inspection areas in England and Scotland.

This was followed in 1950 by a similar visit to France. The inspectors first visited the Centre international d'Etudes pédagogiques at Sèvres for lectures on the organisation of teaching in France today. In addition they saw the functioning of university rectorates, and the inspection of primary and higher schools in the provinces.

A similar visit was made to the Benelux countries in 1951 to study inspection and teaching methods there.

A survey of the various systems of national education and the organisation of inspection in the five countries has thus been completed. This has given an opportunity for instructive comparisons of methods and results by means of direct contacts and exchanges of views with foreign colleagues.

A new cycle of courses will begin in 1953, each of which will be devoted to one main subject or one branch of education. The first will be held in the United Kingdom and will deal with technical education, including technical education for girls and the teaching of educational handicrafts.

10.3. Equivalence of Diplomas

10.3.1. Equivalence of School-leaving Certificates.

The problem of the equivalence of school-leaving certificates giving access to higher education in the five countries was one of the first to be studied by the Cultural Committee.

A considerable measure of agreement had been reached on a bilateral basis, but the aim was to extend the network of reciprocity to all five countries.

One of the few remaining obstacles to complete equivalence between the four Continental countries has recently been removed : the Universities of the Netherlands now recognise the French baccalauréat as equivalent to the Netherlands national certificates. It is expected that equivalence between Belgium and Luxembourg will shortly be agreed. Differences between the Continental university systems and the British system make it impossible at present for the United Kingdom to be included in the arrangements made between the Continental countries, but the British Universities, fully aware of the desirability of encouraging students of the other four countries to study in Great Britain, have made known the conditions on which students from those countries can attend British universities.

10.3.2. Equivalence of University degrees and diplomas.

The reciprocal recognition of university degrees and diplomas has also been examined by the Cultural Committee. Bilaterally, some agreement has already been reached which it is hoped to extend. The Mixed Commissions set up under the bilateral Cultural Conventions are continuing the study of this question.

10.3.3. " Effectus Civilis ".

When the Cultural Committee first studied the equivalence of diplomas, it was agreed that consideration of the effectus civilis, that is, the right to practise certain liberal professions which is derived from diplomas obtained after a full course of studies and conferred by these diplomas alone or in conjunction with other non-university qualifications, should not be studied for the time being.

Later, however, a report on effectus civilis, especially as regards medical qualifications, was examined and it was agreed that delegations would exchange information on the situation in their countries.

Circulation of this information is now complete and a questionnaire is to be sent to delegations on the practical possibilities existing in each country of employing, outside the existing legislation, nationals of the other four countries in their own professions.

10.4. Brochure on entrance to universities

The Cultural Committee is studying the possibility of publishing a brochure on the opportunities for young people of one of the five countries to enter the universities and colleges of any of the other four, and on the scholarships, grants, etc. which exist for this purpose.

A draft handbook was submitted to the Cultural Committee at its meeting in April, 1952. A revised text will be studied at the next meeting of the Committee.

10.5. Work of the International Association for the Exchange of Technical Students

The Permanent Commission has approved a recommendation submitted by the Cultural Committee to the effect that the five Governments be asked to give their moral and material support to this Association in view of the valuable work it is doing.

10.6. The Raising of the School-leaving Age. Educational and Vocational Guidance

A meeting of experts from the five countries was held in March, 1952 to study educational questions.

A number of general conclusions were reached at this meeting concerning : the problems, common to all, resulting from the raising of the school-leaving age; the possibilities of prolonging compulsory school attendance after that age; the importance of a general education and the scope of pre-vocational training; the standardisation and simplification of school buildings and equipment; the training of teaching staff. Problems of educational and vocational guidance were also discussed.

At its meeting in April, 1952, the Cultural Committee decided on three means of ensuring close collaboration between the educational authorities of the five countries : the organisation of meetings of senior officials of the Ministries of Education to deal with specific problems and to facilitate the practical application of measures adopted in common; the arranging of meetings of specialists in certain educational branches and methods; increases in exchanges of scholastic material. Practical application of the means outlined above will be studied by the Education Sub-Committee at its next meeting.

A course for inspectors of technical education, to be held in the United Kingdom in 1953, will include a comparative study of the organisation of technical education in the five countries.

A travelling exhibition of educational material will be exchanged between certain countries.

10.7. Teaching of Languages

An exchange of documentation has taken place on the teaching of the languages of each of the Brussels Treaty countries in the other four.

This question has been referred to the Mixed Commissions where, it is felt, practical results can be achieved more easily and rapidly. Progress is reported to the Cultural Committee.

10.8. Re-organisation Projects in Higher Education

A study of re-organisation projects in each of the five countries has been undertaken by the Cultural Committee. A collective report has been drawn up, based on recent developments.

Certain countries are planning to put these projects into practical effect in the near future. The Cultural Committee considers that it would be helpful to compare the various proposals in greater detail. They have therefore decided to call a meeting of experts on the subject in November, 1952, to which interested Members of the Council of Europe are to be invited.

10.9. Appointment of Foreign Teachers

A valuable exchange of information has taken place between the five Governments on the conditions for the appointment of foreign teachers in the Brussels Treaty countries. This question has been studied in connection with the teachers' exchanges which take place regularly between the five countries.

11. Youth

11.1. Courses and Meetings for Young People

These began in 1949 with a walkingtour in Luxembourg for youth hostel members of the five countries, and with a youth camp in Cornwall.

Three courses were held in 1950 :

The first was at St. Cloud in France, for 49 experts from the five countries, on the organising of holidays and spare time for children and young people. Subjects discussed were, for instance, the psychology of adolescents, co-education, training of youth leaders, etc., and various study visits were arranged so that delegations could see the practical work being carried out in France.

The second course was held at Baarn in the Netherlands where 30 youth leaders from the five countries discussed means of ensuring permanent international collaboration in the various fields of youth activity. The practical possibilities of collaboration in adult education, youth movements, open-air recreation, were examined, and, here again, study visits completed the discussions and debates.

The third course took place at Genval in Belgium. Here 45 students discussed the problems of university life and studies in the five countries. Social security for students, the financing of university studies by scholarships and study grants, the facilitating of access to higher education, the organisation of accommodation, meals, university cooperatives and cités, international university exchanges, holiday courses, and collaboration of students' associations and unions, were among the subjects discussed.

Practical recommendations were drawn up by each of these courses, in particular on ways of improving the organisation of such meetings in the future.

In 1951 a walking tour for young people of the five countries was held in Luxembourg.

In 1952, a course on theatrical productions by young people was held in Belgium. A comprehensive report on the organisation of these productions in the five countries was prepared and an exhibition on dramatic art was assembled, which will form the basis of a travelling exhibition to visit other Brussels Treaty countries.

A course for Government officials of the five countries who deal with youth services is to be held at Marly in France in November, 1952.

11.2. Travel Guides for Young People

A joint travel guide for young people entitled En Route was published in 1951 under the auspices of the Brussels Treaty Governments; the Foreword was signed by the five Ministers of Education.

The guide was published in French, English and Dutch, and gave all details regarding passport formalities, customs regulations (particularly as regards camping outfits, foodstuffs, etc.), currency and rates of exchange, the transport of bicycles, etc., questions of health and insurance and, finally, the possibilities of accommodation offered by public authorities, youth movements and private associations.

In 1952, three separate editions of the travel guide are to be produced, for young people travelling in France, the United Kingdom and the Benelux countries.

11.3. Exchanges of Young Workers

The Youth Sub-Committee has agreed that young workers in industry, commerce and agriculture should be able to spend some time abroad in connection with their jobs, so that they may be able to make contact with young people in other countries.

The Sub-Committee in September, 1950 noted that, with the exception of the United Kingdom and, to a certain extent, France, there was a lack of central bodies for exchanges of young people, and wished to see this deficiency remedied. The Sub-Committee considered that the Cultural Committee should bring this question of central bodies to the attention of the Brussels Treaty Social committees.

Existing means of organising exchanges of young workers are now, therefore, being studied by the Youth Sub-Committee and the Manpower Sub-Committee and, as a first step, these two sub-committees are co-operating in arranging trial exchanges between industrial firms in their countries.

11.4. Collective Passports

The Brussels Treaty Powers have now reached agreement on simplified uniform collective passport arrangements for travel in the five countries. In addition, the conditions of issue and use have been made more advantageous for the young travellers. The new arrangement came into force on 1st April, 1952.

The age limit for holders is raised from 18 to 21 years of age, with certain reservations on the issue to young people over 18 in the United Kingdom.

It will no longer be necessary for parties of young people travelling to France or the United Kingdom on a collective passport to get a visa for those countries, provided the members of the party are under 18. If any of them is over 18, a visa for the United Kingdom will be necessary, but will now be provided free of charge.

A uniform document will be used in each of the five countries as the new collective passport.

11.5. Camping

In view of the great increase in camping holidays which has taken place in recent years, the Youth Sub-Committee has undertaken a study of the question of camping. Camping regulations vary considerably between the five countries.

A preliminary comparative study has been made, and the five countries are keeping in touch on this rapidly-developing problem.

11.6. Survey of Youth Activities

Working from a preliminary questionnaire, the Brussels Treaty countries have now completed a survey of youth activities in the five countries. The survey covers further education, the work of youth movements, youth leaders and their training, music, singing, dancing, drama, film clubs, open-air recreation such as physical traning and holiday camps, etc.

This survey is to be used for the meeting of Government officials responsible for youth services in the five countries which will be held in 1952. It will also be available to interested organisations when it is later published.

12. Government officials

The Cultural Committee decided to hold courses for Government officials of the five countries each year in order to provide personal contacts between them at all appropriate levels, to give them the opportunity for discussing questions of common interest, and to ensure that a sufficient number of officials in each country became familiar with the machinery of government in the other four.

In 1949, senior Government officials from the five countries attended a two-week course in London. Subjects for study were the machinery of government in the United Kingdom with special reference to the structure and organisation of the Executive, Cabinet Government, Parliamentary control, the Civil Service, and local government relations with the central government. Visits to Ministries and discussions with individual officers were planned as part of the course, as well as a two-day visit to a local government centre.

In 1950, the French Government organised a similar course, which gave a general idea of the organisation and functions of French public authorities, from the Prime Minister's office to the rural commune. A programme of lectures was drawn up to give the visitors a better understanding of the background, the traditions, and political and other relationships in which their French colleagues work.

In 1951, a course was held in Brussels on the machinery of Government in the Benelux countries. A comparison was made with governmental organisation in France and Great Britain and the differences, due to special national conditions in the Benelux countries, were studied.

The Cultural Committee has now set up a Sub-Committee of Government officials, on which the Cultural Committee is represented, to promote closer relations between officials in the five countries and, in general, to ensure a better understanding of the administrative principles and methods in the Governments concerned.

This Sub-Committee met for the first time in April, 1952. A number of conclusions were reached on the general organisation of courses for Government officials. It was also agreed that interchanges of Government officials between the five countries should be encouraged and various practical means of ensuring this were adopted.

Detailed plans have been made by the Sub-Committee for the next course, which will be held in the United Kingdom in 1953.

13. Films

13.1. Non-Commercial Films

The work of the Non-Commercial Film Sub-Committee has been successful in ensuring a wider distribution in the Brussels Treaty countries of films made in each of them. Much more is now known in each of the five countries about non-commercial film production and distribution in the other four. This co-operation has also resulted in the joint production of a colour film.

13.1.1. Exchanges of information on production.

The five countries exchange a considerable amount of information about noncommercial films produced in their countries, in particular about :

Cultural, educational and scientific films already produced in each country;
Films of which the Governments possess the non-commercial rights;
Regular exchanges of information on non-commercial films budgeted for and under production.

Certain aspects of life in the Brussels Treaty countries have been covered by noncommercial film production in some of these countries and not in others. A complete range of films on such subjects would be of great value to all five countries. The above-mentioned exchanges of information have shown where the gaps exist and these gaps have been taken into account in planning future production in all five countries.

13.1.2. Exchanges of information on distribution.

The five countries have now supplied each other with complete information on the distributing agencies for non-commercial films in their countries. This information is of considerable use in helping the circulation of films about life in the Brussels Treaty countries.

13.1.3. Visits of technicians.

A number of visits have been arranged for non-commercial film experts to study production and distribution techniques in the five countries. Reports on these visits are made to the Non-Commercial Film Sub- Committee and points raised during the visits are discussed at the Sub-Committee's meetings.

13.1.4. Importation of non-commercial films.

The Permanent Commission approved in 1949 a recommendation by the Sub-Committee to facilitate the importation of films for non-commercial purposes. This question was dealt with in the UNESCO Convention on the free importation of cultural material. The Convention did not, however, solve the problem of the temporary importation of films.

In order to simplify import and export procedure for non-commercial films, the Sub-Committee is studying the possibility of establishing a system under which films, certified by the competent authorities of the exporting country to be of educational, scientific or cultural character and imported temporarily, would be admitted free of customs duty and under simplified regulations. The system proposed is similar to the triptych system for the temporary import of cars.

Negotiations are in progress with the competent authorities in each country to see whether such a system is feasible.

13.1.5. Joint production of a film on landscape painting.

The five Brussels Treaty countries have jointly produced a colour film on landscape painting in Western Europe.

The production team was drawn from experts of the five countries under the direction of M. Henri Storck of Belgium; the chief art adviser and scenarist was M. Cassou, Curator of the Musée d'Art Moderne in Paris.

The museums and art galleries of the five countries have co-operated wholeheartedly in making their pictures available for filming; they include the National Gallery, the Tate Gallery, the Wallace Collection, the Louvre, the Cinquantenaire in Brussels, the Musée Communal in Ghent, and the Rijhsmuseum and the Mauritshuis in the Netherlands.

The film was given its first showing at the Edinburgh Festival on 18th August, 1952.

13.1.6. Exchanges of films for non-commercial purposes.

The Non-Commercial Cinema Sub- Committee has carried out an experimental scheme of exchanges of films between the five countries.

Many difficulties were encountered at the outset, but the exchanges have now been successfully completed and, as a result, much has been learnt by each country about the methods, facilities and problems of production and distribution in the other four. Solid foundations have been laid for bilateral exchanges of non-commercial films by the establishment of accepted channels for such exchanges.

13.1.7. Standard Index Card.

A standard index card for supplying information about non-commercial films has been adopted by the five countries. It has proved of considerable value in the selection of films for exchange or purchase.

It is anticipated that other international organisations will also adopt the same form of card.

13.2. Newsreels

It is hoped that cinema audiences in the five countries will be given as many opportunities as possible of becoming familiar with interesting events characteristic of the life of the other four nations. Exchanges of information on subjects included in the newsreels of each country are talcing place and are proving of considerable value to newsreel producers.

At the invitation of the United Kingdom Government, newsreel editors from the Brussels Treaty countries met in London in 1950 to study ways and means of facilitating and developing the production of newsreel stories suitable for use in the five countries.

Newsreels have proved a difficult subject for international co-operation within the framework of the Brussels Treaty Organisation, since they are so closely related to commercial interests.

14. Radio

The Cultural Committee is represented by an observer at the informal meetings of the broadcasting organisations of the five countries.

Bilateral programme exchanges are regularly arranged and lists are circulated by all five countries of programmes dealing with the Brussels Treaty countries.

School broadcasts have proved a particularly valuable means of international cooperation.

15. Television

Experts of the five countries held several meetings in 1950 in order to try to reach agreements on a common standard of definition for television emissions. This did not prove feasible and different standards have now been adopted by three of the countries.

Hovewer, recent technical developments will make it possible to receive on one definition, programmes emitted on another.

From the technical point of view, therefore, there should in future be no difficulty in arranging direct exchanges of programmes between the five countries. The Cultural Committee feels that such exchanges and relays should be encouraged as much as possible and will keep under review the development of these exchanges.

16. Free Circulation of Cultural Material

One of the most comprehensive tasks undertaken by the Cultural Committee was a study of the obstacles which hinder the free movement of persons and of cultural material between the five countries.

16.1. Resolutions on Cultural Free Trade

Two Resolutions submitted by the Cultural Committee were approved by the Permanent Commission and passed to the five Governments for action.

The first concerned the free circulation of books and periodicals. The Cultural Committee had made a thorough study of the economic, financial and administrative obstacles to the exchange of books and periodicals between the Brussels Treaty countries. The five Governments were recommended to take all necessary steps to ensure that books and periodicals, on entry into one of the five countries which, owing to a shortage of foreign currency, had temporaly imposed a system of priorities, be treated as privileged commodities. It was further/ recommended that bilateral agreements be concluded whereby these goods could benefit from the priority grade applicable to commodities deemed essential. The five Governments were also requested to invite the professional bodies concerned to respect, with regard to the price of books coming from the four other countries, only the normal profit margins.

The second resolution concerned the free circulation of works of art and recommended that, in any forthcoming commercial negotiations between two or more of the five Powers, quotas be provided for the acquisition of contemporary works of art.

16.2. UNESCO Convention on Cultural Free Trade

The efforts of the five countries towards removing the obstacles to the free flow of cultural material contributed to the reaching of an agreement in Geneva at a meeting of customs experts convened under the auspices of UNESCO. This conference resulted in a draft multilateral convention which was approved by the general conference of UNESCO in Florence in June, 1950. The Brussels Treaty countries were amongst the first to sign this Convention. The Convention provides for the exemption from customs duties of books and periodicals, newsreels, non-commercial films, works of art and scientific instruments or apparatus.

17. Exchange of State Papers

The exchange of State Papers and other Government publications for the use of the interested departments in the five countries has been arranged.

18. Protection of Works of Art in Wartime

The five countries have agreed on mattei's of policy connected with the protection of works of art in wartime.

The technical measures necessary for carrying out this protection are being studied by experts of the five countries.

19. Calendar of Congresses

A calendar of congresses held in the five Brussels Treaty countries is edited by the British Council on behalf of the Cultural Committee. The calendar covers major congresses and meetings of an educational, scientific and cultural nature.

20. Co-operation between Professional Organisations

In 1950, the Cultural Committee discussed co-operation between organisations in the five countries representing the different professions, in particular the liberal professions, such as law, estate agency, accountancy, architecture, etc. It was felt that this question should be dealt with on a bilateral basis by the Mixed Commissions, where the most satisfactory results could be achieved.

21. Simplification of Travel Documents

Passport experts of the five countries intend to examine, at their next meeting in 1952, the possibility of simplifying travel formalities between the five countries. The use of certificates of nationality instead of passports has been proposed as a solution to this problem.