Parliamentary Assembly
Assemblée
parlementaire

Honouring of obligations and commitments by Armenia

Doc. 10163
27 April 2004

Report
Committee on the Honouring of Obligations and Commitments by Member States of the Council of Europe
Rapporteurs: Mr René André, France, Group of the European People’s Party, and Mr Jerzy Jaskiernia, Poland, Socialist Group


Summary

Since the end of March 2004, a series of protests were organised by the opposition forces in Armenia, calling for the holding of a “referendum of confidence” in President Kocharian. The demonstrations, while announced, have not been authorised by the authorities who threatened their organisers with criminal prosecution. In the early morning of 13 April, the security forces violently dispersed some 2000-3000 protesters who were attempting to march towards the presidential palace, calling for President Kocharian’s resignation. The police reportedly used truncheons, water cannons and tear gas, causing dozens of injuries.

The Parliamentary Assembly considers that the actions of the Armenian authorities are contrary to the letter and the spirit of the recommendations formulated in its Resolution 1361 (2004) adopted last January and it demands Armenia to urgently comply with its obligations and commitments.

The Assembly calls upon the authorities and the opposition to refrain from any action which may lead to further violence and to engage in a dialogue without preconditions, with a view to resolving the present conflict in accordance with Council of Europe standards and European democratic practice.

I.          Draft resolution [Link to the adopted text]

1.         Since the end of March 2004, a series of protests were organised by the opposition forces in Armenia, calling for the holding of a “referendum of confidence” in President Kocharian. The possibility of such a referendum was first mentioned by the Armenian Constitutional Court following the presidential elections in February and March last year. The Constitutional Court has since reversed its decision and the authorities qualify the opposition demands and protests as an attempt to seize power by force.

2.         The demonstrations, while announced, have not been authorised by the authorities who threatened their organisers with criminal prosecution. Following the demonstrations on 5 April, the prosecutor general opened criminal investigations against several members of the opposition and many more were arrested. On the same occasion, several journalists were beaten up by unknown persons while the police was standing by taking no action.

3.         New demonstrations took place on 9, 10 and 12 April in Yerevan. In the early morning of 13 April, the security forces violently dispersed some 2000-3000 protesters who were attempting to march towards the presidential palace, calling for President Kocharian’s resignation. The police reportedly used truncheons, water cannons and tear gas, causing dozens of injuries. A number of protesters were arrested, including members of parliament, some of whom are members of the Assembly, and some were allegedly mistreated during their custody by the police. The security forces also assaulted and arrested several journalists who were covering the opposition rally.

4.         The tensions in Armenia continue to run high; new protests are planned for the week of 26 April. For the time being, there seems to be little room for dialogue between the authorities and the opposition, even if some offers have been made and some members of the ruling majority – and notably the Speaker of the Armenian parliament – have begun criticising the heavy-handed crackdown on demonstrators.

5.         With regard to the conduct of the authorities, the Parliamentary Assembly recalls that its actions are contrary to the letter and the spirit of the recommendations formulated in its Resolution 1361 (2004) adopted last January. It is particularly concerned with the fact that:

i.          massive arrests, including on the basis of the Administrative Code, ignored the demand to immediately end the practice of administrative detention and change the Administrative Code used as a legal basis for this practice;

ii.          the authorities refused to authorise opposition rallies for reasons not permitted under the European Convention on Human Rights. Moreover the new draft law on the procedure of conducting gatherings, meetings, rallies and demonstrations, currently in the parliamentary procedure, was evaluated as excessively restrictive by experts of the Venice Commission;

iii.         persons detained during the recent events were reportedly subjected to ill-treatment by police and security forces, in spite of Assembly’s demands to take resolute and more active steps to remedy misconduct by law enforcement officials;

iv.         freedom of expression continues to be seriously curtailed and several acts of violence against journalists, which took place during the recent events, were carried out or were allowed to happen by the police and security forces.

6.         With regard to the conduct of the opposition, the Assembly stresses that they should do their utmost to avoid any future violence.

7.         As to their demands for the holding of a “referendum of confidence” and the resignation of President Kocharian, the Assembly stresses that:

i.          both the presidential, and the parliamentary elections which followed in May last year were severely criticised by the international community, including by the Assembly delegations. The elections fell short of the international standards in key areas and the irregularities observed notably included biased media coverage, detention of opposition proxies and campaign staff, falsification of results, intimidation of observers as well as generally inadequate performance of the elections administration.

ii.          although the fraud, in spite of its magnitude, did not decisively change the outcome of the elections nor invalidate their final results, in its report on the honouring of obligations and commitments by Armenia, adopted in January 2004 (Resolution 1361), the Assembly expressed profound disappointment at the conduct of the elections and called for a thorough investigation into electoral fraud and an end to the judicial impunity for those responsible for it.

8.         Consequently, the Assembly considers that the opposition, while entitled to fully enjoy their constitutional rights to peaceful assembly, should refrain from attempts to use street demonstrations to reverse the results of last year’s elections, which have been, in spite of the irregularities, validated by relevant national and international bodies.

9.         The Assembly calls upon the Armenian authorities to:

i.          allow peaceful demonstrations and refrain from any further action which would legally, or in practice, lead to unjustified restrictions to the freedom of assembly guaranteed by the European Convention on human rights;

ii.          immediately investigate – in a transparent and credible manner - the incidents and human rights abuses reported during the recent events, including assaults of journalists and human rights activists, and inform the Assembly of their findings and possible legal actions against persons responsible;

iii.         immediately release the persons detained for their participation in the demonstrations and immediately end the practice of administrative detention and amend the Administrative Code to this effect;

iv.         create fair conditions for the normal functioning of the media, notably as regards the issuing of broadcasting licences to television companies, particularly to television channel A1+;

v.          send a written report to the Assembly, before the opening of the June 2004 part-session, on the steps it has taken with regard to sub-paragraphs 9.i , ii, iii and iv.

10.        The Assembly calls upon the authorities and the opposition to refrain from any action which may lead to further violence and to engage in a dialogue without preconditions, with a view to resolving the present conflict in accordance with Council of Europe standards and European democratic practice.

11.        The Assembly believes that the recent events have added a measure of urgency to its demands for Armenia’s full and unconditional compliance with their obligations and commitments. It resolves to continue to closely monitor the situation in Armenia and, if no progress with regard to sub-paragraphs 9.i, ii, iii and iv is made by the opening of the June 2004 part-session, to reconsider the credentials of the Armenian delegation, in accordance with Rule 9 of its Rules of Procedure.

II.         Explanatory memorandum by the co-rapporteurs

1.         Introduction

Since the end of March, opposition forces in Armenia decided to jointly organise mass protests to force a “referendum of confidence” in President Kocharian. The possibility of such a referendum was first mentioned by the Armenian Constitutional Court following the presidential elections in February and March last year, which were strongly criticised by the international community.

The opposition intentions are likely to have been inspired by last year’s events in the neighbouring Georgia, where massive protests led to the resignation of President Shevardnadze and early presidential and parliamentary elections.

The Armenian authorities reacted to the opposition call for protests with a campaign of political intimidation and administrative and judicial harassment. Once the protests started, the reaction was even more ruthless. Demonstrations were violently dispersed, journalists were beaten up, a large number of opposition supporters were arrested and premises of the opposition parties were raided by the police.

The Head of the OSCE presence in Yerevan blamed both the authorities and the opposition for violent incidents. Most media and NGO reports put the blame squarely on the government.

New opposition rallies were announced for the week of 26 April. The tensions continue, there seems to be little room for dialogue right now.

2.         Background to the recent events

            The 2003 presidential and parliamentary elections

Armenia conducted two important elections last year – President Kocharian was reelected president in March and the new parliament was elected in the elections which took place in May.

Both elections were severely criticised by the international community, including by the Assembly delegations. The elections fell short of international standards in key areas, and the irregularities observed included notably biased media coverage, detention of opposition proxies and campaign staff, falsification of results, intimidation of observers as well as generally inadequate performance of the elections administration.

The Assembly’s monitoring report, adopted in January 2004 (Resolution 1361), expressed profound disappointment with the conduct of the elections. The Assembly also called for a thorough investigation into electoral fraud an end to the judicial impunity for those responsible for it.

However, in their explanatory memorandum, the rapporteurs concurred with the findings of the OSCE observation mission that the fraud, in spite of its magnitude, did not decisively change the outcome of the elections nor invalidate their final results.

It was in this spirit that the Assembly ratified the credentials of the Armenian delegation after the May parliamentary elections. However, the acceptance of the results should not be understood by Yerevan as the readiness to condone and tolerate this kind of conduct in the future. They were given the benefit of the doubt, but they should be very careful not to gamble with the trust of the international community. The recent events regrettably indicate that the authorities have not fully understood this message.

            “Referendum of confidence”

After several presidential candidates from the opposition contested the results of the Presidential elections in February and March last year, the Armenian Constitutional Court ruled that their complaints were well-founded but did not invalidate the results. Instead, it proposed the holding of a “referendum of confidence” in President Kocharian.

This decision, delivered on 16 April, was severely criticised by President Kocharian and his supporters, as a challenge to the President’s legitimacy. The Constitutional Court has since reversed its position and stated, on 26 January 2004, that its original decision had been misunderstood and manipulated.

In spite of this decision of the Constitutional Court, the holding of a “referendum of confidence” constitutes the main demand of the present opposition campaign of protests.

3.         Chronology of recent events[1]

- 17 March 2004

President Kocharian dismissed Aram Tamazian, Prosecutor-General for the past three years.  Mr Kocharian stated that the role and prestige of the Office of the Prosecutor-General had declined under Mr Tamazian's leadership, appointed in his place was Aghvan Hovsepian, Deputy Prosecutor-General.  He had served as Prosecutor-General in 1998 and 1999.  Four Yerevan procesutors were dismissed on 22 March.

- 23 March

The European Union's special envoy for the southern Caucasus, Heike Talvitie, met the Minister for Foreign Affairs and two Deputy Speakers of Parliament.  Ms Talvitie referred to the controversial draft legislation currently before Parliament which would restrict freedom of assembly.  Tigran Torosian, a "parliamentary official", gave an assurance that this bill was in conformity with European principles and standards, and that it was currently under examination by the Council of Europe's Venice Commission.

- 26 March

In a joint communique to Parliament, the three political parties of the governing coalition issued a warning about attempts to break constitutional law, and called the responsible authorities to maintain order with determination and firmness.

- 28 March

A major gathering organised by the Artarutiun opposition bloc in Giumri, Armenia's second city, degenerated into fighting between those who back Artarutiun and supporters of President Kocharian.  Four members of Artarutiun were arrested for assaulting a police officer.  The chairperson of Artarutiun, Stepan Demirchian, had told participants (numbering around 1 000): "we are witnessing the death throes” of the Kocharian regime, and “the Armenian people cannot tolerate the rule of such thugs".

- 29 March

The Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, which represents the most influential business persons, issued a statement warning that political unrest would have negative effects on the Armenian economy and that such a situation would jeopardise the chances of finding a solution to the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict on terms favourable to Armenia.

- 30 March

President Kocharian's press service stated that the opposition's threats were baseless and aggressive, and that the organisation of unauthorised public meetings was a "criminal offence", and would be dealt with as such.

The chairperson of the Armenian Helsinki Association, Mikael Danielian, was attacked and beaten up by four unknown men as he left his home.  He had constantly expressed criticism of the Armenian authorities for violations of human rights.

The prosecutor general opened a criminal case against members of the opposition Justice Alliance under Article 301 (public calls for seizure of power by force) and 318/2 (publicly insulting representatives of government).

- 31 March

The authorities warned the opposition leaders that they might well be arrested during an investigation of their plans to "seize power by violence and change the constitutional order of the Republic of Armenia".  The Artarutiun opposition bloc and the National Unity Party planned to organise demonstrations in April calling for the resignation of President Kocharian, whose re-election in 2003 they challenged.  The leader of Artarutiun, Stepan Demirchian, emphasised that the opposition was not seeking violence, but merely wished to restore constitutional order.

- 1 April

At a meeting with European ambassadors, President Kocharian said that the situation was tense in Armenia.  He declared that stability was his priority, and he rejected accusations that his government had threatened to arrest opposition leaders.

The Armenian Revolutionary Federation gave its support to the governing coalition against the opposition, while the Republican Party and Orinats Yerkir said that arrests among the opposition would be unjustified.

- 5 April

The National Unity Party organised a rally in Yerevan that drew an estimated 3000 participants. Fights broke out and journalists trying to film the clashes were beaten up while police was standing by taking no action

The leaders of the two main opposition parties, Stepan Demirchian and Artashes Geghamian, announced that they would be organising demonstrations from 9 April onwards in order to force the government to resign, despite a number of arrests of opposition supporters made by the authorities on 4 April.

- 6 April

The police confirmed that 48 opposition activists and supporters had been arrested following an unauthorised demonstration on 4 or 5 April.  It was reported that, during this demonstration, some journalists had been attacked by unknown persons, without the police intervening.  The police chief declared that the law enforcement agencies had been told to intervene only in extreme cases.

The leaders of the three main opposition parties, Artashes Geghamian, Aram Sargsian and Stepan Demirchian, during new demonstrations in Yerevan on 9 and 10 April, decided to call for President Kocharian's resignation, on the grounds that his re-election had been fraudulent and therefore unlawful.  They issued an ultimatum to the authorities, giving them until midday on 12 April to organise a referendum of confidence in Mr Kocharian.

- 9, 10 and 12 April

The organisers estimate that 30,000 people (60 of whom were arrested) took part in the 9 April demonstrations, with 10,000 taking part on 10 April and 15,000 on 12 April.

- 13 April

At 2 am on 13 April, special police equipped with truncheons, water cannons and tear gas grenades attacked between 2,000 and 3,000 demonstrators who were attempting to march towards the presidential palace to call for the resignation of the President, causing dozens of injuries.

Security forces brutally attacked several journalists reporting on the opposition rally.

The police then moved on to the headquarters of the National Accord Party, the People's Party of Armenia and Hanrapetitiun, destroying their offices and arresting some members of these parties, including three MPs.

Artashes Geghamian and Aram Sargsian called for new demonstrations.

President Kocharian met the three leaders of the governing coalition parties and expressed condemnation of the previous days’ opposition demonstrations and support for the police action.  He added that the authorities would use all lawful means of preventing any more extremist demonstrations

Vahan Hovannisian (a member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, Dashnaktsutiun), Deputy Speaker of Parliament, said that the opposition had overestimated its capacities and that its demands were of an extremist nature.  He pointed out that the three coalition parties had made an offer the previous week to begin dialogue with the opposition.

At this time, Artashes Geghamian and Aram Sargsian were in hiding, fearing arrest.

Stepan Demirchian rejected police claims that the demonstrators had used violence against the police.

A spokesman for the US State Department, Richard Boucher, expressed the United States' concern about the acts of violence in Armenia, and urged the two sides to engage in dialogue.

- 14 April

Artashes Geghamian, at a press conference in the parliament building, said that the police had searched the National Unity Party headquarters and his own flat, seizing documents and even family photographs.  He added, with the support of two members of the Artarutiun alliance, Albert Bazeyan and Viktor Dallakian, that the opposition would continue to campaign for the resignation of the country’s leadership.

At a meeting with members of Armenia's United Communist Party, President Kocharian called for dialogue with the opposition.  Tigran Torosian and Samvel Balasanian, members of the governing coalition, also proposed dialogue, during a meeting with Artashes Geghamian, who rejected the offer.  Tigran Torosian added that a referendum of confidence in the President would be both unlawful and unconstitutional.

The President of the Parliamentary Assembly, Mr Schieder, and the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, Mr Schwimmer, expressed serious concern about the violent events in Armenia.

At a meeting with Natalia Voutova, Special Representative of the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, the Prosecutor General, Mr Hovsepian, said that the police had acted lawfully on 13 April.

- 15 April

The three parties of the governing coalition reiterated their offer of dialogue, but the opposition leaders, Mr Demirchian, Mr Sargsian and Mr Geghamian, rejected this proposal and voiced their intention of organising a demonstration in Yerevan on 16 April.

1,000 people demonstrated in Yerevan against police brutality and the arrests of 13 April.  115 people had been arrested on 13 April, including three MPs who had subsequently been released.

The police accused the former Minister of Defence, Mr Harutiunian, who had been arrested on 13 April, of disturbing public order and insulting officials. 

- 16 April

A demonstration organised by the Artarutiun alliance and the National Accord Party was attended by 6,000 people.  Mr Demirchian told the demonstrators that the police brutality of 13 April was a crime that could be neither forgiven nor forgotten.  Mr Sargsian added that the opposition would continue to organise demonstrations until President Kocharian resigned.

- 19 April

In an interview with Russian daily Izvestia, Mr Kocharian described the repeated opposition demonstrations as based on a "misunderstanding" and as a "temporary phenomenon", and said that Georgia's "Revolution of Roses" could not be reproduced in Armenia, whatever the opposition thought.  He added: "I do not understand the purpose of these demonstrations, when the opposition is represented in Parliament and can work and prove to society its effectiveness and its capacity to solve problems better than the President".

- 20 April

Speaking to journalists, Mr Kocharian denied rumours that he was planning to divert the attention of the opposition which was campaigning for his resignation by dismissing his Prime Minister or dissolving Parliament and calling new elections.

The Prime Minister, Andranik Markarian, said that, were he to be dismissed, he would join the opposition.

The United States Ambassador in Yerevan had separate meetings with Mr Demirchian and Mr Geghamian.  No information about these discussions is available.

- 21 April

An estimated 20,000 people demonstrated to call for the resignation of President Kocharian.  Mr Sargsian called on the demonstrators to meet again on 27 April for what he called a "decisive" demonstration.  Mr Dallakian summarised the opposition's conditions for accepting the governing coalition's offer of dialogue: the release of all political prisoners, the end of government "repression" against the opposition and the resignation of the Minister of Defence and the Prosecutor-General.

- 22 April

The Venice Commission experts concluded that the draft law on the freedom of assembly was not in conformity with European principles and standards.

4.         Resolution 1361 (2004) on the honouring of obligations and commitments by Armenia

In January 2004 the Assembly adopted its its second monitoring report since the accession of Armenia to the Council of Europe in January 2001. Resolution 1361, adopted on this occasion, takes note of some encouraging developments that took place in the last two years – notably the ratification of Protocol 6 to the European Convention on Human Rights which formally abolished the death penalty 

However, the Resolution – as already mentioned – sharply criticised the two elections carried out in 2003. Moreover, it listed a number of serious concerns with regard to the democratic and human rights conduct of the Armenian authorities and expressed its expectations that these issues will be speedily dealt with in accordance with Council of Europe standards and principles.

Regrettably, the reaction of the Armenian authorities in the events of March and April this year demonstrate that the Assembly’s request for further progress was ignored and that, with regard to some of the Assembly’s key concerns, the situation has even worsened.

            Administrative detention

With regard to the scandalous and continued use of administrative detention, Resolution 1361 urged the authorities to amend the Administrative Code to put an end to this practice which is incompatible with the organisation’s standards. The Assembly also asked the authorities to submit this new draft to Council of Europe expertise by April 2004.

Instead of immediately ending this practice and preparing the necessary legislative drafts to this effect, the Armenian authorities resorted to a wide use of administrative detentions during the recent events. While it is difficult to verify the exact number of persons who were arrested and the legal basis used for their detention, most reports indicate that their number was between two and three hundred.

The Assembly repeats its demand for an immediate end to the practice of administrative detention. The Administrative Code must be revised without any further delay.

            Freedom of assembly

Resolution 1361 asked the Armernian authorities to immediately begin examining the question of balance between the freedom of assembly and respect for public order, and to adopt a law on demonstrations and public meetings in full compliance with Council of Europe standards.

Regrettably, during the March and April events the authorities have displayed a diametrically opposite attitude. Most of opposition demands for authorisation of their meetings were turned down, reportedly for reasons that cannot be deemed as justified in accordance with Council of Europe standards and practice. According to Human Rights Watch, the opposition demands were turned down because of the “detriment to the city’s economic well being” or “blocking traffic”.

Moreover, a draft law on rallies and demonstrations, which is currently in the Parliamentary procedure, was evaluated by the Venice Commission which found that the restrictions to the freedom of assembly envisaged by the draft law were too broad and limitative, giving the state authorities the right to restrict freedom of assembly for reasons which are not permitted by the European Convention on Human Rights.

The Assembly insists that the comments of the Venice Commission are fully taken into account in the last reading of the law in the Armenian parliament, and that the freedom of assembly is no longer restricted in the manner which we have seen during the recent events.

The opposition, for its part, shares the responsibility to prevent violence during their rallies.

            Conditions of detention

In January, the Assembly asked Armenia to make further efforts to improve conditions of detention, on the basis of recommendations formulated by the Council of Europe’s Committee for the Prevention of Torture (CPT). Regrettably, according to Human Rights Watch, several persons arrested during the recent events were subjected to abuse during their detention by the police. These allegations must be investigated, in a speedy, transparent and credible manner, and if their veracity is confirmed, persons responsible should be punished in accordance with the law. The Armenian authorities should inform the Assembly, in the shortest delays, on the steps it has taken to comply with this request.

            Freedom of expression and media

This is a long standing concern, also repeated in January. The situation has hardly improved. The authorities continue to refuse to give the broadcasting licence to the television channel A1+. Moreover, during the recent events several journalists were severely beaten by unknown persons while police were standing by, while others were assaulted and arrested by the security forces themselves. Intimidation of the press through such a conduct will not be tolerated. The lack of media freedom which made it very difficult to obtain accurate information on the recent events was also mentioned in the reaction of the Council of Europe’s Secretary General.

5.         Conclusion

The recent events in Armenia resulted in a worsening of the situation with regard to key concerns expressed by the Assembly in its January report, and notably with regard to the continuation of administrative detention and conditions of detention, human rights violations by members of police and security forces, freedom of assembly, and freedom of media. This situation cannot be allowed to continue. The rapporteurs expect an immediate and significant change in the conduct and legislative practice concerning the respect of Armenia’s obligations and commitments. Failure to do so before the Assembly’s June session could lead to sanctions.

The opposition should enjoy full freedom to conduct their political activities, which include the right to peaceful demonstrations. The authorities should immediately abstain from any interference and administrative and judicial harassment in this regard.

The fundamental freedoms of expression and assembly must be respected and any restrictions must be in line with the European Convention on Human Rights.

This being said, the opposition shares the responsibility for ensuring that protests are not marred by violence. The parliament should be the main forum for political arguments. They should not try to circumvent the political institutions in the country with a hope to reverse the results of last year’s elections which were, in spite of criticism, validated both at the domestic level and by the international community.

The Assembly should not be drawn into accepting artificial analogies between the situations in Georgia and in Armenia.

The Assembly should focus its efforts on ensuring full compliance with Armenia’s commitments and obligations. Its January Resolution contains all the necessary steps to bring about a qualitative change in the democratic and human rights situation in the country.

The Armenian authorities must speedily implement the remaining commitments. This would not only reduce the present political tensions (through a full respect of democratic procedures, human rights and fundamental freedoms) but also ensure that future elections in the country are carried out in full compliance with international standards, and thus bring an end to the endemic political instability in Armenia.

Both the authorities and the opposition should abstain from violence and do their utmost to prevent further incidents. They should engage in a meaningful political dialogue aimed at resolving the tensions and the Assembly is ready to offer its good offices to this effect.


Reporting committee: Committee on the Honouring of Obligations and Commitments by Member States of the Council of Europe (Monitoring Committee)

Reference to Committee: Reference No. 2944 of 26 April 2004

Draft resolution unanimously adopted by the Committee on 27 April 2004

Members of the committee: Mrs Durrieu (Chairperson), Mr Frunda, Mrs Tevdoradze, Mrs Severinsen(Vice-Chairpersons), Mrs Aguiar, Mr Akçam, Mr Akhvlediani, Mr B. Aliyev, Mr André, Mr Arzilli, Mr Atkinson, Mr Baška, Mrs Bauer, Mr Bernik, Mrs Bilgehan, Mr Bindig, Mrs Bousakla, Mr van den Brande, Mr Budin, Mrs Burbiene, Mr Cabrnoch, Mr M. Cavusoglu, Mr Cekuolis, Mr Christodoulides, Mr Cilevics, Mr Colombier, Mr Debono Grech, Mrs Delvaux-Stehres, Mr Einarsson, Mr Elo, Mr Eörsi, Mr Glesener, Mr Gross, Mr Grusenbauer, Mr Hancock, Mr Hedrich, Mr Hegyi, Mr Herkel, Mr Holovaty, Mrs Jäätteenmäki, Mr Jakic, Mr Jaskiernia, Mr Jurgens, Lord Kilclooney, Mr Kirilov, Mrs Konglevoll, Mr Kvakkestad, Mrs Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger, Mr van der Linden, Mr Lintner, Mr Martínez Casań, Mr Marty, Mr Medeiros Ferreira, Mr Melcák, Mr Mikkelsen, Mr Mollazade, Mr O’Keeffe, Mr Olteanu, Mr Pangalos, Mrs Petrova-Mitevska, Mrs Petursdottir, Mr Prijmireanu, Mr Rakhansky, Mrs Ringstad, Mr Rivolta, Mr Rustamyan, Mr Sasi, Mrs Shakhtakhtinskaya, Mr Shybko, Mr Slutsky, Mr Smorawinski, Mr Soendergaard, Mr Spindelegger, Mrs Stoyanova, Mr Surjan, Mr Tepshi, Mr Tkác, Mr Vis, Mrs Wohlwend, Mr Yáńez Barnuevo, Mr Zacchera.

N.B. The names of those members who were present at the meeting are printed in italics.

Head of the secretariat:Mrs Ravaud

Secretaries to the committee: Mr Gruden, Mrs Odrats, Mr Cupina


[1] This chronology is mostly based on information found in the international press.