a.       Increased intelligence co-operation and data-sharing on possible terrorist threats. However, to date, co-operation mainly takes shape at the level of bilateralism, less so at the level of international organisations due to a lack of trust that secrets can be kept within those international organisations.

b.       Increased co-operation between foreign intelligence services, internal security services, border guards, custom authorities and immigration services at the national level.

c.       The involvement of private companies in the fight against terrorism, for example, forcing private airliners to hand over information to (foreign) authorities, forcing internet and telephone providers to cooperate with intelligence services (e.g. to overhear telephone conversations and to report findings to the services), or using private security companies to protect airports and when interrogating suspects.

d.       Adoption and harmonisation of laws across European states, in terms of the fight against money laundering, the euro arrest warrant and a widening definition of terrorism.

e.       A swing of the pendulum away from liberty and human rights protection towards a greater focus on security.

religious beliefs and the use of religion to incite criminal acts, and called for criminal legislation to cover offences motivated by religious hatred and other steps to protect against religious discrimination. The European Union Council Framework Decision on Combating Terrorism lists acts which Member States are required to incriminate under their national law (Article 1).

purpose of the regular police is to protect human rights and uphold the law, both by preventing the infringement of people’s human rights by others and by respecting human rights in the exercise of that duty. Respect for human rights is thus essential for good and effective regular policing.

a.       Council of Europe European Code of Police Ethics. The Code defines the objectives of the police, the legal basis of its functioning under the rule of law, its relation to the criminal justice system, the desired principles for organisational structure (including the accountability mechanisms), and the guidelines for action/ intervention.

b.       UN Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials. The Code emphasises the human rights and rule of law dimensions of all police activities, and urges their unconditional observance.

c.       UN Civilian Police Principles and Guidelines. Although primarily designed as a set of guidelines for policing in the context of peacekeeping operations, it underlines the same general set of themes as other policing Codes, both in relation to the principles and situations in the field. Its added value is the extensive section devoted to training mechanisms.

d.       OSCE Code of Conduct on Politico-Military Aspects of Security. The Code stating the participating states’ commitment to an appropriate balance of assuring effective security and the respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It is wider in scope, in that it encompasses the military, paramilitary and internal security forces, as well as intelligence services

a.       Concerns as to the security of data held in the Europol Computer System and other issues relating to data protection

b.       Concerns over the type of data held by Europol and how this data is used and analysed by TECS.  

c.       Concerns as to the input of data by third countries and third parties.

d.       Concerns as to the immunity from prosecution of Europol officials and seconded liaison officers (ELOs).  

committee, industry committee, home affairs committee, etc) are sometimes required to hold joint meetings. The following is therefore a series of examples which cover practically all the supervisory systems to be found in member states.

committee does not have a direct influence on national defence policy, the framing and implementation of which falls mainly under the remit of the National Security Council, the President and the Chief of Staff.


1 The Rapporteur expresses his gratitude to the Centre for the democratic control of armed forces (DCAF – Geneva) for its contribution.