17 July 2007
The humanitarian crisis in Darfur
Committee on Migration, Refugees and Population
Rapporteur: Mrs Ruth-Gaby VERMOT-MANGOLD, Switzerland, Socialist Group
This report is a reaction of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe to the alarming humanitarian situation in Darfur region, where 85,000 people have been killed, more than 200,000 people have died of hunger or disease during four years of conflict between local rebels, the Sudanese army and their allied Janjaweed militia.
The report praises the efforts of humanitarian organisations rendering support to the affected population in the Darfur region, despite continuing insecurity and harassment of humanitarian organisations and workers. It condemns continuing violation of human rights of the civilian population in the Darfur region perpetrated by the parties of the conflict, including violence against women and children, torture and rape, all of which constitute major violations of human rights and international humanitarian law.
It examines the situation of 2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) scattered over the vast area of the Darfur region and makes a number of recommendations to the government of Sudan and all parties to the conflict and to the international community in finding the most efficient and immediate ways to solve this world’s most serious humanitarian crisis.
A. Draft resolution
1. The Parliamentary Assembly recalls and reaffirms United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1556 (2004) and 1706 (2006) on the crisis in Darfur.
2. It also takes note of the report presented by the High-Level Mission created by the United Nations Human Rights Council pursuant to its decision S-4/101.
3. The Assembly is alarmed by the scale of violence in the Darfur region of Sudan, where 85 000 people have been killed and more than 200 000 people have died of hunger or disease during four years of conflict between local rebels, the Sudanese army and their allied Janjaweed militia. As a result of this crisis, more than 2 million people live in camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs) scattered over the vast area of the Darfur region, while another 230 000 individuals have fled Sudan and sought asylum in Chad.
4. It is gravely concerned that, despite the signing of the Darfur Peace Agreement in May 2006 and the recent ceasefire agreement between the Government of Sudan and the rebel groups (11 January 2007), the Sudanese Government has failed to put a stop to the violence in the region and improve the humanitarian situation.
5. The Assembly strongly condemns the continuing violation of human rights of the civilian population in the Darfur region perpetrated by the parties to the conflict, including violence against women and children, torture and rape, all of which constitute major violations of human rights and international humanitarian law.
6. Noting that the crisis in Darfur has led to one of the world’s largest humanitarian aid efforts, which involves nearly 14 000 aid workers helping 3.8 million people with food, medicines and water, the Assembly is particularly alarmed by the Sudanese Government’s continuing obstruction of international humanitarian assistance and the deterioration in the treatment of the civilian population.
7. Thirteen United Nations agencies, more than 80 non-governmental organisations and Red Cross/Red Crescent Societies are giving humanitarian support to the affected population in the Darfur region. Despite a high degree of insecurity and continued harassment of humanitarian organisations and workers, the humanitarian community has been able to safeguard humanitarian standards in IDP camps. Unfortunately, the current funding of humanitarian operations will run out in a few months, with every prospect that the crisis could become further aggravated.
8. The Assembly welcomes the latest agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Sudan (28 March 2007) on facilitation of humanitarian activities in Darfur. However, access to humanitarian assistance is endangered by continuing security problems for humanitarian workers and a number of bureaucratic obstacles.
9. The Assembly is especially concerned with the situation of internally displaced persons and refugees whose numbers have significantly increased in 2007.
10. Therefore, the Parliamentary Assembly:
10.1. demands that the government of Sudan immediately and fully comply with all resolutions of the United Nations Security Council, and in particular put an immediate end to :
10.1.1. violence against the civilian population;
10.1.2. violations of human rights, in particular the forced expulsion of people from their home villages;
10.1.3 multiple acts of violence against women and girls, in particular the use of rape as a cruel instrument of war;
10.1.4. blockage to relief efforts in the region;
10.1.5. restrictions regarding the access of humanitarian workers to the affected population;
10.2. urges the Government of Sudan to:
10.2.1. fully cooperate with UN concerning the joint United Nations – African Union proposal (Addis Ababa agreement) regarding the deployment of an effective hybrid peacekeeping mission.
10.2.2. increase the efforts aimed at the promotion of the national reconciliation process to realize peace and stability in the region ,
10.2.3. provide immediate support to all international agencies and humanitarian organisations in order to facilitate delivery of humanitarian aid to people in need;
10.3. calls on the Government of Sudan and all parties to the conflict to pay special attention to the protection of women and girls and others who are in a particularly vulnerable situation;
10.4. appeals to the Government of Sudan in co-operation with the United Nations Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to ensure that natural resources, such as water and firewood and humanitarian assistance are fairly shared between the local population and IDPs;
10.5. calls all the parties to the conflict which have not signed the Darfur Peace Agreement to do so without delay.
11. The Assembly calls on all countries which maintain close co-operation with Sudan, such as China, India and Russia, to use their political influence with the authorities of Sudan to put an end to the conflict in the Darfur region.
12. The Assembly calls on the international community to :
12.1. ensure the immediate and effective enforcement of the arms sales sanctions agreed by the United Nations;
12.2 restart negotiations in order to find a political solution to the crisis in the Darfur region that is acceptable to all parties; and, above all, include women in the peace negotiations as required under UN Security Council Resolution 1325;
12.3. ensure the effective protection of the civilian population of the Darfur region through the deployment of United Nations / African Union peacekeeping forces;
12.4. provide protection and assistance to the internally displaced population in Sudan and refugees in Chad and in the Central African Republic;
12.5. support the exercise by the International Criminal Court of its jurisdiction.
13. Furthermore, the Assembly calls on the member states of the Council of Europe and other stakeholders to:
13.1. contribute generously to the extension of humanitarian assistance to the region through appropriate agencies;
13.2. provide the humanitarian operations of the UNHCR, UNOCHA, UNICEF and ICRC with financial and material resources;
13.3. assist the local authorities with humanitarian demining assistance;
13.4. oversee the immediate demilitarisation and rehabilitation of former combatants, including child soldiers.
14. The Assembly reiterates its support to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the United Nations Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the International Committee of the Red Cross, together with the other national and international humanitarian non-governmental organisations, in their efforts to save the lives of thousands people in the Darfur region.
B. Explanatory memorandum by Mrs Vermot-Mangold, Rapporteur
1. The conflict in Darfur has become one of the most serious ongoing humanitarian crisis of the 21st century. More than 85 000 people have been killed and more than 200 000 have died of hunger and disease. Nearly two million people have been forced to leave their homes. An estimated one million Sudanese people have already had to flee to Chad, a neighbouring country which is also facing serious internal difficulties aggravated this year by drought and the devastation of agriculture by desert locusts.
2. The present conflict started in 2003 when the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) rose up against Janjaweed (“devils on horseback”) militia groups supported by the Sudanese government.
3. Unlike previous conflicts in Sudan between the Muslim North and Christian and Animist South, the present conflict involves mainly Muslim populations. It has been fuelled by a flagrant absence of state authority which has not been able to prevent arms smuggling from Chad, Ethiopia and Libya and which has allowed rebel groups to arm themselves and to fight for their tribal interests.
II. History of the conflict
4. Located in the north-west of Sudan, Darfur is a vast region of 490 000 km2, populated by approx. 6 360 000 inhabitants.
5. Darfur ("country of ovens"), which enjoyed a relative autonomy during the colonial period, was attached to Sudan in 1916. Numerous tribes of this region have however been in constant conflict amongst themselves for the management of natural resources.
6. Nevertheless, these conflicts were controlled by the traditional mechanisms which existed between tribes in order to support the ethnic cohesion of the region.
7. After the proclamation of independence from Sudan in 1956, the South (Christian and Animist) confronted the North (Muslim) for the distribution of power and economic resources.
8. This conflict ended in 1972 but restarted in 1983 and came to an end after a cease-fire agreement was signed in July 2002. By this agreement the oil resources were distributed between the South and the Central Government.
9. The starting point of the present conflict was February 2003 when the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) accused the government of oppressing the non-Arab population and took up arms against the Sudanese government which had armed and supported the Janjaweed militias. In this conflict, Janjaweed militias have deliberately targeted civilian populations in the areas supporting the rebels. Rebel groups have also violated human rights by attacking humanitarian workers.
10. On 3 September 2003 a Ceasefire Agreement was signed between the Government and the SLA. However, this did not stop violence against the civilian population intensifying.
11. The United Nations has classified the violations of human rights in Darfur region as crimes against humanity and war crimes.
12. On 8 April 2004, the Government, the SLA and JEM signed a humanitarian ceasefire agreement and protocol on establishing humanitarian assistance in Darfur. This agreement called for the establishment of a Ceasefire Commission to monitor the cessation of hostilities, supported by an African Union Observer Mission.
13. In May 2006, the Sudanese government and one of the factions of the SLA led by Mini Minawi signed the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA). This agreement required from the Sudanese Government of National Unity complete disarmament and demobilisation of the Janjaweed militias by October 2006. The Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and the SLA faction led by Abdul Wahid Mohamed Nour refused to sign the agreement, which significantly undermined its impact. On the contrary, new fighting started among the rebel factions and between the Sudanese government and non-signatory rebel groups. It provoked a new displacement of civilians in 2006 to the camps around Darfur.
III. UN resolutions on the crisis in Darfur
14. On 18 September 2004, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1564, which called for a Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to assess the Sudanese conflict. The Commission established that the government and the Janjaweed militias were responsible for serious violations of international human rights and humanitarian law, and that these violations were so widespread and systematic that they may constitute crimes against humanity.1
15. The UN Security Council adopted in March 2005 three other resolutions relating to the Darfur conflict: Resolution 1590( 24 March) by which the United National Mission in Sudan was established and which authorised the deployment of 10 000 UN military and civilian personnel to monitor the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement; Resolution 1591 (29 March) which imposed an arms embargo on all parties in Darfur and Resolution 1593 (31 March) which referred the situation in Darfur to the International Criminal Court.
16. On 31 August 2006, the United Nations Security Council approved a resolution 1706 authorising a new UN peacekeeping force of 17 300 persons to be sent to the region. The UN provided the force with a mandate under Chapter VII of the UN Charter to protect civilians, but conditioned the deployment on consent of the Sudanese government. The Government of Sudan has however expressed strong opposition to the resolution.
IV. Present humanitarian situation
17. The present situation in Darfur has been aggravated due to several important factors: the demographic explosion in the region, the climatic changes which have caused drought in the region, political opportunism and the failure of the traditional tribal mechanisms to control the conflict.
18. From July - August 2006, fighting was renewed, "threatening to shut down the world's largest aid operation" as international aid organisations considered leaving due to attacks against their personnel. United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan called for bringing a force of 18,000 international peacekeepers to the region in order to replace the African Union force of 7,000 (AMIS).
19. Rape and sexual violence became pervasive throughout Darfur, with attacks on women and girls taking place both in the context of hostilities between the warring parties as well as when internally displaced women and girls travelled outside camp settings to collect firewood. 2 The International Rescue Committee reported that hundreds of women were raped and sexually assaulted around the Kalma refugee camp in August 2006, with the Janjaweed accused of using rape as a weapon. Culturally in the region, raped women are considered unclean, and are ostracised. Women are even raped in open, public places to increase humiliation for them and their families.
20. After the Darfur Peace Agreement the humanitarian aid workers came under increasing attacks by both sides of fighters. This led to the withdrawal of some humanitarian missions and important restrictions of movement for international humanitarian organisations.
21. In 2006, access to people in need in the Darfur region was the worst since April 2004. Many NGOs providing primary health care have had to suspend or minimise their activities, which led to a deterioration of the hygiene in IDP camps, reflected by the cholera outbreak that struck 2 768 and killed 147 people during 2006. Global malnutrition rates are edging perilously close to the emergency threshold, while some 60 percent of households in need of food aid cite insecurity as the main barrier to cultivating their land, raising livestock and taking part in other income-generation activities.3
22. The government of Sudan officially rejected UN Resolution 1706 and the deployment of UN peacekeeping forces in Darfur. In November 2006, under the pressure of diplomatic negotiations the Sudanese government accepted a three-phased UN support package for the African Union force (AMIS), which foresee the deployment of joint UN-AU military forces, but until now no progress has been made in the implementation of the UN support package.
i) Situation of IDPs and refugees
a. In Sudan
● Internally Displaced Persons
23. The UN estimates that almost two million persons have been displaced due to the conflict in Darfur, while the number of residents considered in need of assistance has dropped below 1.8 million, reflecting decreased dependency on humanitarian assistance during the post-harvest season.4
24. Due to increased fighting and insecurity more than 250 000 people have been displaced during the last six months, many of them fleeing for the second or third time.
25. The government of Sudan did not provide any significant assistance or protection to IDPs. There were numerous reports of attempts by the government to forcibly return persons to their homes.5
26. IDP camps are reaching full capacity due to the continuing population displacement. In North Darfur, As Salaam camp has been declared to be operating at full capacity, with there being a lack of water to sustain additional incoming IDPs.6
27. The government has not established a system for providing protection to refugees, despite its adherence to the 1951 UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 protocol.
28. Darfur hosts some 20,000 Chadian refugees. To assist them, UNHCR has set up 2 camps with the provision of 1,600 shelters at Um Shalaya and Mukjar, which, however, do not host all the 20,000 refugees. Concerning basic needs, UNHCR ensures the procurement of non-food items (NFIs) and their distribution to about 50,000 refugees and IDPs through partner agencies. Dry food provided by WFP is distributed to 4,000 Chadian refugees. Primary health care is provided to 5,000 Chadian refugees; urgent medical cases are referred to Khartoum and El Geneina. UNCHR assists, both, IDPs and refugees with the establishment of baseline data on their villages and the registration of people in camps.
b. In Chad
● Internally Displaced Persons
29. The conflict in Darfur has taken a regional dimension, extending into South-Eastern Chad and the Central African Republic, also because Sudan and Chad continue supporting rebel forces against each other. The security situation deteriorated during 2006 with inter-ethnic fighting related to the control of scarce Chadian resources and to the opposition or allegiance to the government. The displacement situation continues to deteriorate.
30. By the end of 2006 there were around 113 000 IDPs in Chad along the Sudanese border. They came from the eastern border with Sudan, particularly from the south-eastern region, near Goz-Beida.7
31. Janjaweed attacks, especially in November-December 2006, created a great many IDPs from the Dadjo ethnic group on the southern border with Sudan.
32. The government publicly recognised that its resources were directed toward fighting rebel groups and armed militias and that it could not provide additional protection to the growing number of IDPs and refugees.
33. According to UNCHR, Chad hosts around 230 000 Sudanese refugees from Darfur, 200 000 of whom are located in 12 camps managed by UNHCR along the eastern border with Sudan. The government of Chad co-operates with UNHCR and other humanitarian organisations in assisting refugees and asylum seekers. The government has not however been able to protect the camps and relief agencies n the east from the numerous military attacks by rebel groups. The camps face serious water and sanitation problems and the local population has very strong anti-refugee sentiments and is in constant concurrence with refugees for local resources.
34. Southern Chad also hosts 46,000 refugees from the Central African Republic.
35. UNHCR’s presence in South-Eastern Chad includes one Sub-office in Abeche and 9 Field Offices with 292 staff. The total requirements for 2007 are calculated at 6,211,494 USD.
36. The number of returns is low, due to the persistence of insecurity and violence in the region. Nevertheless, in 2006, 125 IDP families returned spontaneously to their villages, and some 15,000 refugees returned from Chad. In order to render the return more sustainable, UNHCR assists returnees in access to basic services such as water and schools.
ii. International humanitarian agencies and NGOs working in the region
37. 13 UN agencies, more than 80 non-governmental organisations and various components of the Red Cross / Red Crescent movement including the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) are rendering humanitarian support to the affected population in the Darfur region. Due to the efforts of humanitarian agencies mortality rates in the region were brought below emergency levels, global malnutrition was halved and access to safe drinking water was assured for three-quarters of the population.
38. In 2006, the international community donated 79% of the requested 800 million USD needed for humanitarian operations in Darfur. The World Food Programme and its partners assisted some 3,1 million people and distributed 387 500 million tones of food in Darfur region. Access to safe water supply increased from 63% in 2005 to 73% in 2006. Nearly 516 500 children were enrolled in primary school.8
39. UNHCR’s presence in Darfur includes one Sub-office in El Geneina and 5 Field Offices with a total of 107 staff.
40. UNHCR’s protection, assistance, monitoring and co-ordination activities target primarily IDPs in West Darfur. The total programme requirements for 2007 are calculated at 19 739 131 USD.
41. The main objectives of UNHCR’s operation in Darfur in 2007 are to:
- Ensure that international standards of protection are met for all persons of concern.
- Create a protective environment, preventing further displacement and involuntary return.
- Maintain readiness to respond to new movements of Chadian asylum-seekers or Sudanese refugees returning from Chad to Darfur.
- Support refugees and IDPs who have returned spontaneously to West Darfur through community-based projects.
42. There are some 700 000 IDPs in this region, UNHCR is able to constantly monitor the conditions of some 400 000 of them. A protection priority is the prevention of and response to sexual and gender-based violence. Children and the elderly are also targeted as most in need of protection. UNCHR has also set up women’s centres and vocational training for young people and women (literacy, mat weaving, stove making, etc.).
43. UNHCR co-ordinates protection efforts as part of a UN collaborative effort for IDPs. In 2006, UNHCR established two refugee camps in West Darfur to assist some of the 20 000 Chadian refugees who fled to Sudan. In 2006, due to UNHCR’s efforts, 50 000 households (refugees and IDPs) received basic household items; 50 villages got access to drinkable water; 20 schools were rehabilitated or constructed in villages to allow more children access to education, 1 600 refugee families were assisted with adequate shelters.
44. The presence in Darfur represents the ICRC’s biggest deployment worldwide. In 2007, the International Committee of the Red Cross has 1 960 staff in Darfur, including 160 expatriates.
45. For the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) the main priority in the Darfur region is to render emergency aid, medical care and basic assistance to people directly affected by armed conflicts. The main focus is placed on the population in rural areas so as to avoid them having to move to camps in search of assistance. The ICRC assists with food distributions, but also other essential supplies. ICRC also helps people with agricultural support, supplying farmers with seeds and tools and veterinary care for nomadic herds. It is also engaged in repairing wells, delivering vaccination tools and medical supplies to remote communities. In 2006, the ICRC distributed over 19 000 million tonnes of food to a monthly average of 177 000 residents and IDPs in rural areas, and in the Gereida IDP camp. The ICRC’s field surgical team was deployed 60 times and performed 491 operations. Furthermore, five primary health care clinics were supported in the region.
46. Unfortunately, there have been two serious incidents since the beginning of the year, with abductions of humanitarian workers and episodes of hijacking. Episodes like these hamper the capacity of the ICRC to provide basic and urgent assistance to the people in need, especially to communities in remote rural areas.
47. In Chad, ICRC maintains 215 staff, including 36 expatriates. In Chadian refugee camps, ICRC has set up offices (managed by refugee volunteers) which try to reunify families scattered in different locations across Darfur or along the Chadian border using Red Cross messages. In 2006, it has forwarded 8,800 Red Cross messages. For 554 people (especially unaccompanied children) it became possible to communicate with their family and 30 families have been reunited thanks to ICRC’s efforts. The ICRC is helping 50,000 IDPs with access to water, shelter and non-food items, and with programmes supporting self-sufficiency and health-care facilities. It visits people in prison, verifying the conditions of detention, assisting them when necessary and provides them with food, hygiene items, monitoring their health and delivering short messages for their relatives. ICRC has two surgical teams that in 2006 treated 1,670 patients. Furthermore, it diffuses information on International Humanitarian Law (IHL) among armed forces, political authorities and the media. It also organises events, courses and presentations.
V. Insecurity of humanitarian operations
48. Attacks on humanitarian workers have dramatically increased over the past several months. In January 2007, 14 UN agencies with operations in Darfur issued a Joint Statement on the urgency of the situation. In this statement it was stressed that 12 aid workers had been killed in the past 6 months; 30 NGO and UN compounds were directly attacked by armed groups; more than 400 aid workers were forced to relocate 31 times from different locations throughout the three Darfur states in both government and rebel controlled areas. There have been three sexual assaults on relief workers in the previous five months- the first in September 2006 by Janjaweed militia, the second in December 2006 by SLA forces, and the third on 19 January 2007 by Government police and National Security agents.9 Nearly 500 aid workers withdrew since the start of December 2006.10
49. On 1 January 2007, access for UN agencies in Darfur reached 64%, the lowest access rate since April 2004. 20% of affected people could not be reached by any humanitarian agency due to insecurity. The most important factor for decreased access is the intolerably high incidents of increasingly violent hijackings of humanitarian vehicles, with a debilitating effect on the organisations’ outreach capacity. Between October and December 2006, 50 humanitarian vehicles were hijacked and 17 convoys ambushed and looted, during which 5 humanitarian workers were wounded by gunshots.11
50. Since the beginning of the conflict, the government has consistently restricted the access of humanitarian aid to the population by numerous bureaucratic hurdles such as strict control mechanisms on NGO activities, introduction of import restrictions of humanitarian supplies, delays in issuing visas, introduction of daily travel and fuel permits. In November 2006, the NGO Norwegian Refugee Council decided to leave Darfur as a result of the continuous suspensions of their operations by the South Darfur administration.
51. Despite a high degree of insecurity and continued harassment of humanitarian organisations and workers, the humanitarian community has been able to safeguard humanitarian standards in camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs). Unfortunately, the current funding of humanitarian operations will run out in a few months, with every prospect that the crisis could become further aggravated.
52. Alarmed by the worsening of the situation in Darfur, the Assembly considers that the most urgent problem of the humanitarian situation in the Darfur region is a need for the protection of the civilian population.
53. Today, more than 4 million people in Darfur are dependent on humanitarian aid for their survival. Nevertheless, the lack of security has obliged humanitarian agencies to restrict their activities. UN agencies and NGOs will continue to bring relief and help to Sudanese and Chadian people touched by the conflict in Darfur, but the conditions surrounding the provision of this assistance have become extremely precarious. The need for greater security is thus felt by both civilians and humanitarian aid workers. The African Union force (AMIS) is too weak to ensure the protection of all civilians and, as mentioned, the Government of Sudan refuses to accept the deployment of UN troops in Darfur (UNSC Resolution 1706).
54. The international community should take urgent action to ensure the effective protection of the civilian population in the Darfur region and neighbouring areas in Chad and the Central African Republic. A strict timeline for the deployment of UN peacekeeping forces should be established, with concrete sanctions for non-compliance.
55. As expressed by the Human Rights Council Resolution on Darfur S-4/101 of March 2007, "the seriousness of ongoing violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in Darfur” are of deep concern to the international community. In particular, the Government of Sudan is responsible for refusing to neutralise and disarm the “Janjaweed” as it should do, following the requirements of the Darfur Peace Agreement. It is also responsible for backing different paramilitary groups and local tribal militias which perpetrate serious abuses and crimes against civilians. Notwithstanding this, the UN Resolution did not directly condemn the Sudan government for its responsibilities in Darfur.
56. The Assembly should urge a cessation of all hostilities in Darfur by all parties to the conflict, in accordance with the 2005 Darfur Peace Agreement.
57. An appeal should be made to the Government of Sudan to increase its efforts aimed at promoting the national reconciliation process in order to establish peace and stability in the region, and to call on all the political forces which have not signed the Darfur Peace Agreement to do so as soon as possible.
58. The Assembly should also provide immediate support to all international agencies and humanitarian organisations in order to facilitate delivery of humanitarian aid to people in need.
59. The government of Sudan should, in co-operation with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the United Nations Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), ensure that natural resources, such as water and firewood, and humanitarian assistance are fairly shared between the local population and IDPs.
60. Systematic and widespread rape and sexual assaults against women and girls are a dramatic feature of this conflict. As highlighted by Human Rights Watch in its World Report 2007 - Sudan, these assaults “are taking place both in the context of hostilities between the warring parties as well as when internally displaced women and girls travel outside camp settings to collect firewood and other items. In just one example in August, aid workers reported that more than 200 women and girls were sexually assaulted over a five week period in Kalma, the largest displaced persons camp in South Darfur”.
61. The Assembly should therefore call upon the Government of Sudan (and all parties to the conflict) to pay special attention to the protection of women and girls.
62. The Assembly should also reiterate its support to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the United Nations Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the International Committee of the Red Cross, together with the other national and international humanitarian non-governmental organisations, in their efforts to save the lives of thousands people in the Darfur region.
63. The Assembly should also call on the member states of the Council of Europe and other stakeholders to contribute generously to the extension of humanitarian assistance in the region and to provide the humanitarian operations of UNOCHA, UNHCR, UNICEF and ICRC with financial and material resources.
64. The Assembly should call for the strict enforcement of the UN arms embargo.
65. The Assembly should call on all member states, international organisations and leading world powers to increase and co-ordinate their efforts to achieve a peaceful solution to the conflict.
Reporting committee: Committee on Migration, Refugees and Population
Reference to Committee: Request for a current debate, Reference No. 3345 of 24 May 2007
Draft resolution unanimously adopted by the Committee on 28 June 2007
Members of the Committee: Mr Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu (Chairperson), Mr Jean-Guy Branger (1st Vice-Chairperson), Mr Doug Henderson (2nd Vice-Chairperson) (alternate: Mr Bill Etherington, Mr Ibrahim Özal (3rd Vice-Chairperson), Mrs Tina Acketoft, Mr Pedro Agramunt, Ms Donka Banović, Mr Ryszard Bender, Mr Akhmed Bilalov, Mr Italo Bocchino, Mrs Olena Bondarenko, Mrs Mimount Bousakla, Mr Márton Braun, Lord Burlison, Mr Sergej Chelemendik, Mr Christopher Chope (alternate: Mr Michael Hancock), Mr Boriss Cilevičs, Mrs Minodora Cliveti, Mr Ivica Dačić, Mr Joseph Debono Grech, Mr Taulant Dedja, Mr Nikolaos Dendias, Mr Karl Donabauer, Mrs Lydie Err, Mr Valeriy Fedorov, Mr Oleksandr Feldman, Mrs Gunn Karin Gjul, Mrs Angelika Graf, Mr John Greenway, Mr Andrzej Grzyb, Mr Ali Riza Gülçiçek, Mr Michael Hagberg, Mrs Gultakin Hajiyeva, Mr Jürgen Herrmann, Mr Bernd Heynemann, Mr Ilie Ilaşcu, Mrs Iliana Iotova, Mr Tadeusz Iwiński, Mr Mustafa Jemilev, Mr Tomáš Jirsa, Mrs Corien W.A. Jonker, Mr Reijo Kallio, Mrs Eleonora Katseli, Mr Hakki Keskin, Mr Dimitrij Kovačič, Mr Andros Kyprianou, Mr Geert Lambert, Mr Jean-Marie Le Guen, Mr Massimo Livi Bacci, Mr Younal Loutfi, Mr Jorge Machado, Mr Andrija Mandic, Mr Jean-Pierre Masseret, Mr Slavko Matić, Mr Giorgio Mele, Mrs Ana Catarina Mendonça, Mr Morten Messerschmidt (alternate: Mr Morten Ĝstergaard), Mr Paschal Mooney, Mr Gebhard Negele, Mrs Vera Oskina, Mr Grigore Petrenko, Mr Leo Platvoet, Mrs María Josefa Porteiro Garcia, Mr Cezar Florin Preda, Mr Gabino Puche, Mr Milorad Pupovac, Mrs Mailis Reps, Mr Marc Reymann, Mr Alessandro Rossi, Mr Richard Sequens, Mr Samad Seyidov, Mr Steingrímur J. Sigfússon, Mr Luzi Stamm, Mrs Terezija Stoisits, Mr Giacomo Stucchi, Mr Vilmos Szabó, Mrs Elene Tevdoradze, Mr Tigran Torosyan, Mrs Ruth-Gaby Vermot-Mangold, Mr Andrej Zernovski, Mr Vladimir Zhirinovsky, Mr Emanuelis Zingeris
N.B.: The names of the members who took part in the meeting are printed in bold
Secretaries of the Committee: Mr Lervik, Mr Neville, Ms Karanjac, Ms Kostenko
1 Implementation of General Assembly Resolution 60/251 of March 2006 entitled “ Human Rights Council”, A/HRC/80, 7 March 2007.
2 Human Rights Watch World report 2007-Sudan, 11 January 2007, UNHCR
3 Joint Statement on Darfur, 17 January 2007, UNHCR Press.
4 Darfur Humanitarian Profile N 26, -01 January 2007, Office of UN Deputy Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Sudan, UN Resident and Humanitarian Co-ordinator.
5 US Department of State Country Report on Human Rights Practice 2006- Sudan, 6 March, 2007
6 Sudan Humanitarian Overview, Volume 3, Issue 2, 1 February 2007, UNOCHA
7 US Department of State Country Report on Human Rights Practice 2006- Chad, 6 March, 2007
8 Darfur Humanitarian Profile N 26, -01 January 2007, Office of UN Deputy Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Sudan, UN Resident and Humanitarian Co-ordinator.
9 Sudan Humanitarian Overview, 1-31 January 2007, Vol.3, Issue 1, OCHA and Darfur Humanitarian Access Map
10 Six aid agencies warn Darfur operations approaching breaking point, 28 January 2007, press release, Oxfam.
11 Darfur Humanitarian Profile N 26, -01 January 2007, Office of UN Deputy Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Sudan, UN Resident and Humanitarian Co-ordinator.