17 October 1994

Doc. 7178

1403-13/10/94-12-E

REPORT

on relations between the Council of Europe

and the United Nations

(Rapporteur: Mrs ERR,

Luxembourg, Socialist Group)


Summary

      The Council of Europe has enjoyed observer status with the United Nations General Assembly since 1989 but has not so far made full use of the opportunities thus offered.

      Co-operation between the two organisations should be promoted in order to make better use of available resources and prevent duplication of effort.

      Council of Europe member states should co-ordinate their positions at the United Nations in the areas which are also within our Organisation's competence, in particular human rights. They should also follow the example of those member states which already include parliamentarians in their delegations to the General Assembly.

I. Draft recommendation

1.       On 17 October 1989, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted Resolution 44/6 in which it decided to invite the Council of Europe to participate in its sessions and work in the capacity of observer. The purpose of the resolution was to promote co-operation between the United Nations Organisation and the Council of Europe.

2.       The Assembly regrets the fact that the observer's seat reserved for the Council of Europe at the General Assembly of the United Nations has so far remained empty.

3.       The contributions of the thirty-two member states of the Council of Europe and the nine states which have requested membership represent nearly 45% of the United Nations ordinary budget. They therefore have a very important role to play in the definition of the United Nations task on the European continent, while taking into account the Council of Europe's pan-European dimension.

4.       Relations between the two organisations should be based on good knowledge of each other. Improved information on each other's activities should prevent duplication of effort in Europe and ensure that better use is made of available resources.

5.       There is a whole range of issues which concern the United Nations and the Council of Europe alike and where the two organisations could co-operate at practical and operational levels. The United Nations could draw greater benefit from the Council of Europe's unique experience of human rights and parliamentary democracy.

6.       The Assembly therefore recommends that the Committee of Ministers:

i.       find a pragmatic solution enabling the Council of Europe to be represented in New York, particularly during the sessions of the General Assembly of the United Nations;

ii.       invite the Chairman-in-Office of the Committee of Ministers:

      a.       to organise periodic meetings in New York of the permanent representatives to the United Nations of the member states, in particular in the run-up to the sessions of the General Assembly, in order to discuss the issues affecting both organisations, harmonise their positions and co-ordinate their initiatives, particularly in the field of human rights;

      b.       to provide the permanent delegations of the member states in New York with details of current activities at the Council of Europe which are directly relevant to issues on the agenda of the Security Council or the General Assembly;

      c.       to include in his communication to the Assembly a report on United Nations activities which directly concern the Council of Europe;

iii.       step up political dialogue and exchanges of information between the two organisations and, in particular, expand the co-operation which already exists with the Office of the United Nations in Geneva;

iv.       encourage member states to include parliamentarians in their national delegations to the General Assembly of the United Nations so as to increase its parliamentary character.

II. Draft resolution

1.       The Assembly, referring to its Recommendation .... (1994) on relations between the Council of Europe and the United Nations, insists that the member states of the Council of Europe have much to gain from improving co-operation between the two organisations and ensuring that this also involves a parliamentary dimension.

2.       It further notes that the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the President of the General Assembly, the President of the Security Council and the permanent representatives of the member states lay great store by the presence of parliamentarians in New York, particularly during the sessions of the General Assembly.

3.       Moreover, through such presence, these parliamentarians will give the Assembly, national parliaments and the public a better understanding of the activities of the United Nations and increase their awareness of its role in the years ahead.

4.       The Assembly hopes that all member states of the Council of Europe and the states whose parliaments hold special guest status will follow the example of certain member states by including parliamentarians in their delegations to the General Assembly of the United Nations.

5.       The Assembly therefore decides:

      i.       to monitor very closely the work of the United Nations and, in particular, of its Security Council and General Assembly;

      ii.       to hold an annual debate on the activities of the United Nations and to append to its report a list of the contributions paid to the United Nations budget by the Council of Europe member states and by the states whose parliaments hold special guest status;

      iii.       to encourage its members to join their countries' delegations to the General Assembly of the United Nations;

      iv.       to ask its members to advocate the holding of debates in their national parliaments about the activities of the United Nations in order to increase public awareness of that organisation's new tasks and growing financial needs as it approaches its fiftieth anniversary;

      v.       to initiate discussion as to whether the Council of Europe should be regarded as a regional organisation within the meaning of Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter.

III. Draft order

1.       The Assembly refers to its Recommendation .... (1994) on relations between the Council of Europe and the United Nations.

2.       It instructs:

i.       the Political Affairs Committee:

      a.       to draw up a report on the political challenges facing the United Nations and its necessary restructuring;

      b.       to establish regular dialogue with the Director General of the United Nations Office in Geneva;

      c.       to hold a meeting of its Sub-Committee on Relations with the United Nations in principle once a year in New York on the occasion of the United Nations General Assembly;

ii.       the Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights to establish regular contacts with the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, the United Nations Centre for Human Rights and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

IV. Explanatory memorandum

by Mrs ERR

Contents

Paragraphs

Introduction       1 - 6

Relations between the two organisations over

the last two years       7

a.       At intergovernmental level       8-10

b.       At Parliamentary Assembly level       11-15

c.       Contacts and co-ordinating meetings       16-22

The United Nations and the New World Order       23

a.       Adapting the United Nations to the new situation       24-33

b.       "An Agenda for Peace" presented by the

Secretary General of the United Nations       34-42

c.       The financing of the United Nations       43-50

d.       Adapting the structures of the Secretariat General        51-61

The sub-committee's main findings       62-71

Conclusion       72-81

APPENDICES:

I.       Programme of the meeting of the Sub-Committee on Relations with the United Nations in New York (6-10 December 1994)

II.       Relations between the Parliamentary Assembly and the United Nations

III.       Texts adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly concerning the United Nations Security Council (1992-93)

IV.       United Nations budget for 1992

V.       List of Council of Europe member states including members of parliament in their national delegation to the United Nations General Assembly

Introduction

1.       On 17 October 1989 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted Resolution 44/6 in which, in order to promote co-operation between the United Nations Organisation (UN) and the Council of Europe, it decided to invite our Organisation "to participate in the sessions and work of the General Assembly in the capacity of observer". This resolution had been presented by the twenty states which at the time were simultaneously members of both organisations. The Council of Europe then had twenty-three members, but Liechtenstein, San Marino and Switzerland were not UN members. Today, of the thirty-two member states of the Council of Europe, only Switzerland is not in the UN.

2.       The changes in the world political arena since the General Assembly of the United Nations granted the Council of Europe observer status have forced both organisations to re-assess the scope of their co-operation at both political and practical level. In September 1992 the Political Affairs Committee considered this matter and decided to set up the Sub-Committee on Relations with the United Nations.

3.       This sub-committee was mandated to provide for liaison between the Assembly and the UN and to fulfil, at parliamentary level, the obligations arising out of the Council of Europe's observer status with the General Assembly. The sub-committee was also instructed to monitor general policy issues such as peace-keeping operations and the procedure for implementing the Security Council's decisions and resolutions. It is also responsible for considering the institutional reforms currently being studied in the United Nations and, if appropriate, proposing that the Assembly pronounce on this matter.

4.       The sub-committee decided to begin its work by examining the relations between the Council of Europe and the United Nations. To this end, the sub-committee visited New York from 6 to 10 December 1993. The visit offered also the members of the sub-committee the opportunity to follow part of the proceedings of the forty-eighth session of the General Assembly and glean detailed information on the organisation's work and functioning with a view to preparing this report. The programme of the sub-committee's visit is reproduced in Appendix I.

5.       The discussions held in New York also showed that the profound changes which have occurred in the world in recent years make it necessary to reform the United Nations so that the organisation can become the global instrument for peace and development which its founders had envisaged. However, the sub-committee felt that, in view of its complexity, this question should be dealt with in a separate report to be submitted to the Assembly at a later date.

6.       The visit was organised in close co-operation with the Belgian Permanent Mission to the United Nations, Belgium having held the Chair of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe since 4 November 1993. I would like to thank the Belgian authorities for assisting the sub-committee both in its preparations and during the actual visit.

Relations between the two organisations over the last two years

7.       The current relations between the Council of Europe and the UN were established in the 1950s. The ensuing chapter will only briefly outline the co-operation established between the two organisations over the last two years, that is since Mr Boutros-Ghali took office as Secretary General of the United Nations. More detailed information is to be found in the reports on the Council of Europe's activities (in the section on external relations) periodically drawn up by the Council of Europe's Directorate of Political Affairs.

a.       At intergovernmental level

8.       As part of the political dialogue within the Committee of Ministers, the Ministers' Deputies hold annual exchanges of views on the United Nations activities in the human rights field, with the participation of national experts who co-operate with the United Nations Commission on Human Rights or follow its work in the various capitals. The last such exchange of views took place on 20 January 1994. Discussion largely centred on the human rights issues addressed by the General Assembly at the last session and, in particular, on the creation of the post of High Commissioner for Human Rights.

9.       The Director General of the United Nations Office at Geneva, Mr Petrovsky, attended the opening session of the Vienna Summit (8-9 October 1993). The heads of state and government attending the summit stressed in their Final Declaration the need for "fuller co-ordination of the Council of Europe's activities with those of other organisations involved in the construction of a democratic and secure Europe, thus satisfying the need for complementarity and better use of resources". They established, thus, the framework for future co-operation between the two organisations.

10.       However, co-operation between the Council of Europe and the United Nations system is by no means confined to political dialogue. The Council of Europe contributed to and participated in the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Representatives of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (Unesco), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) have regularly participated in the Council of Europe's intergovernmental activities in the various fields directly affecting them. For its part, the Council of Europe has participated in a fair number of activities organised by these United Nations specialised agencies. Further information on such co-operation can be found in the aforementioned Council of Europe reports.

b.       At Parliamentary Assembly level

11.       Several Assembly committees maintain regular contact with the United Nations specialised agencies. An outline of such co-operation over the last two years is contained in Appendix II hereto.

12.       Among the most important meetings organised by the United Nations agencies and attended by the Assembly are the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), already mentioned in paragraph 9, and the European Population Conference, which was held in Geneva from 23 to 26 March 1993, jointly organised by the UNECE, UNFPA and the Council of Europe.

13.       In addition to such co-operation, over the last two years the Assembly adopted many texts (recommendations and resolutions) in which it has expressed its views and pronounced on matters relating to the Security Council. Excerpts from these texts are reproduced in Appendix III.

14.       It should also be pointed out that when Mr Boutros-Ghali was elected Secretary General of the United Nations, the President, Mr Björck, invited him to address the Assembly. This invitation has been accepted in principle, but has not been materialised yet. The invitation was subsequently renewed on several occasions, most recently by the current President of the Assembly, Mr Martínez, on 24 January 1994. A few weeks beforehand the Sub-Committee on Relations with the United Nations had met with Mr Boutros-Ghali and had also reminded him of the invitation. Unfortunately, his many commitments have so far prevented him from taking it up.

15.       I would also like to remind readers that at the end of the 1980s the Director General of Unesco and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees addressed the Assembly and replied to parliamentarians' questions during the debates on their organisations' respective activities.

c.       Contacts and co-ordinating meetings

16.       The Secretary General of the Council of Europe, Mrs Lalumière, and Mr Boutros-Ghali held their first meeting on 12 February 1992 in New York. On that occasion Mr Boutros-Ghali pointed out that in the face of the growing number of crises in the international community, the United Nations might have to appeal more frequently to regional organisations to help it perform its duties, in accordance with the provisions of the United Nations Charter. Prospects for co-operation and co-ordination between the two organisations came up during this conversation, spurred on by the changes which had occurred on the international scene.

17.       On 10 and 11 May 1993, Mr Petrovsky, Director General of the United Nations Geneva Office, visited the Council of Europe. During his visit he met the Secretary General, the President of the Assembly, the Chairman of the Ministers' Deputies, the chairmen of the various Assembly political groups and the Political Affairs Committee, as well as the Chairman of the latter's Sub-Committee on Relations with the United Nations. Mr Petrovsky said that he hoped to intensify co-operation and co-ordination between the Council of Europe and the United Nations agencies both at political level and under the programme of intergovernmental activities.

18.       On 28 May 1993 Mrs Lalumière had a second meeting with Mr Boutros-Ghali in New York. He confirmed to her that he attached great importance to sharing the work and responsibilities with the various regional organisations, especially on the European continent.

19.       On 9 July 1993 in Stockholm, on the initiative of the President of the CSCE Council, Mrs Af Uglas, Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs and former member of the Assembly, an informal co-ordinating meeting was attended by representatives of the United Nations, the CSCE and the Council of Europe to discuss certain matters relating to the human dimension. Mr Petrovsky participated in this exchange of views.

20.       As stated in paragraph 8, Mr Petrovsky attended the opening session of the Vienna Summit on 8 October 1993.

21.       On 9 November 1993 in Strasbourg, on the initiative of the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, a second informal co-ordinating meeting was attended by representatives of the United Nations, CSCE and the Council of Europe. It emerged from the discussions that participants gave precedence to human rights issues (the human dimension and the issue of minorities, for the CSCE; follow-up to the Vienna World Conference on Human Rights, for the UN; the implementation of the new mechanisms for protecting human rights and minorities and combating racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance, for the Council of Europe).

22.       A third tripartite meeting was held on 1 September 1994 at the United Nations Office in Geneva. Participants agreed on the following criteria for making the best use of available resources: the comparative advantage of the organisations (institutional framework), the working methods (plus achievements and experience), the closeness to the issue concerned and the level of standards which each organisation can propose.

The United Nations and the New World Order

23.       Worldwide changes since the foundation of the United Nations in 1945, and in particular the end of the Cold War, have forced the organisation to adapt to the new situation. In the ensuing paragraphs I will attempt to depict the changes which have been occurring within the United Nations since the collapse of the Berlin Wall in order to have a better understanding of the role that the member states of the Council of Europe can play in this process as well as its potential effects on relations between the two organisations.

a.       Adapting the United Nations to the new situation

24.       Until 1989 the Security Council, the body set up to preserve peace and security in the world, reflected the balance between the two superpowers. However, the observance of Article 2, paragraph 7 of the United Nations Charter, which enshrines the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of states, had the effect of paralysing the organisation. The end of the Cold War radically changed the atmosphere in the Security Council which began to work increasingly on the basis of consensus. The result of this was that the right of veto was used less and less frequently by the permanent members of the Security Council.

25.       This change of atmosphere enabled the Security Council to modify its interpretation of the principle of non-interference, and nowadays this principle no longer seems to hamper action by the international community to help populations suffering as a result of political strife within states. The Security Council resolution authorising the intervention in northern Iraq to help the persecuted Iraqi Kurdish population is an example of humanitarian intervention.

26.       To illustrate this trend, I should like to quote the view of Dr Rufin, Vice-President of the medical relief organisation, Médecins sans frontières, writing in Le monde des débats in January 1993:

      "This right (of intervention) in fact allows the major powers (that is, the five (permanent) members of the Security Council and the major budgetary contributors, Germany and Japan) to intervene on the basis of subjective criteria and without any regard to the sovereignty of states (in particular, those in the south).

      Most countries in the Third World and in formerly communist eastern Europe now feel a sense of vulnerability in relation to a small group of developed nations which are in an imperial position, holding all the economic, commercial and military power. They are afraid that the right of intervention may also entail the confiscation of political decision-making and impose two-tier sovereignty.

      Rather than invoking an exceptional right that is always open to suspicion, intervention should therefore be placed in the universal framework of the United Nations Charter. It alone permits both the recognition and protection of the sovereignty of states (Article 2, paragraph 1) and the use of force for coercive operations. Very many provisions of the charter, which remained dead letters during the cold war, can be used to restrict the Security Council's excessive prerogatives. The establishment of the Military Staff Committee provided for in Chapter VII, the use of the International Court of Justice to determine the crimes against humanity which constitute threats to peace and thus justify the use of force, and the setting up of a system of flexible responses (effective embargoes, creation of safe havens, coercive operations) could all serve as guarantees enabling Security Council decisions to be placed in a proper framework."

27.       Furthermore, the Security Council is increasingly inclined to apply Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter which enables it to adopt measures to make and keep peace and safeguard international security. These measures range from the imposition of sanctions to direct intervention.

28.       At the same time, over the last two years, United Nations operations have increased. Several peace-keeping operations are currently in hand, with success as, for instance, in Cyprus, Namibia, Cambodia and El Salvador. Peace-making has also been attempted, albeit less successfully. It must nevertheless be conceded that the United Nations has insufficient personnel and financing to cope with such operations and that the states supplying the troops are increasingly reluctant to send in their contingents.

29.       The changed international context has also had an effect on the importance which the United Nations attaches to human rights issues, especially as the views of the countries of the former communist bloc are coming more and more into line with those of western countries. Some of the current conflicts are not inter-state confrontations but involve internal strife, which often leads to human rights violations as serious as those encountered in conflicts between states. Nevertheless we should not lose sight of the fact that human rights also continue to be violated in peace time.

30.       However, human rights protection is currently the subject of a debate centring on fundamental principles. Northern, developed, countries ascribe a universal value to human rights. For some southern countries, in particular certain Islamic countries, the status of human rights varies according to the development and cultural traditions of the individual country. The reservations expressed by certain Arab states when signing human rights conventions on the grounds that they contradict Islamic law constitute a very dangerous development. This is why I cannot but welcome the results of the World Conference on Human Rights organised by the United Nations in Vienna in June 1993, which confirmed the universality of human rights and sanctioned the international community's right to intervene in the internal affairs of states where human rights are being violated.

31.       All these changes raise the question whether the United Nations is adapted to the new tasks it has now to perform. For example, the Security Council should probably be reformed, because its current membership, which reflects the world situation just after the second world war, is no longer representative of the organisation's overall membership. In 1945, the charter provided for five permanent members, with a right of veto; and six non-permanent members. In the 1970s the number of non-permanent members was increased to ten. Pressure is currently being exerted to enlarge further Security Council membership, and the General Assembly has begun studying the various possibilities.

32.       This is an extremely vexed question because some countries consider themselves entitled to become permanent members. This is the case of Germany, Japan, India, Nigeria and Brazil. However, apart from the first two, these countries' candidacies for permanent membership are contested even in their home regions. The possibility of representation at the Security Council of regional organisations such as the European Union would also be worth studying. The great majority of the experts who have expressed an opinion on this issue seem to think it inconceivable that the number of Security Council members should exceed twenty. Many of those interviewed by the sub-committee considered that the fiftieth anniversary of the United Nations in 1995 would be a desirable deadline for completion of the Security Council's reforms.

33.       Yet, the updating of the Security Council does not only concern its membership but also its working methods and decision-making procedure. Some developing countries hold the view that the Security Council takes its decisions further to secret consultations which exclude certain countries. However, according to some of its members, the Security Council is increasing its efforts to consult the countries directly affected by the subjects on its agenda and to make its work more accessible, although this does not mean that it is made answerable to the General Assembly.

b.       "An Agenda for Peace" presented by the Secretary General of the United Nations

34.       On 31 January 1992 the Security Council, meeting at head of state and government level, invited the Secretary General of the United Nations to prepare a report on "ways of strengthening and making more efficient within the framework and provisions of the charter the capacity of the United Nations for preventive diplomacy, for peace-making and peace-keeping". In his report, entitled "An Agenda for Peace", the Secretary General outlined his views on what should be the United Nations' new role in guaranteeing peace and security in the world. I can only recommend a careful reading of this United Nations document, published under reference S/24111.

34.       In his proposals the United Nations Secretary General states that the organisation should henceforth pursue the following aims:

      —to       try to identify at the earliest possible stage situations that could produce conflict, and to try through diplomacy to avert the danger before violence results;—

      —wh       ere conflict erupts, to engage in peace-making aimed at resolving the issues that have led to conflict;—

      —th       rough peace-keeping to work to preserve peace, however fragile, when fighting has been halted and to assist in implementing agreements reached by the peace-makers;—

      —to       stand ready to assist peace-building in its differing contexts: rebuilding the institutions and infrastructures of nations torn apart by civil war and strife; and building bonds of mutual benefit among nations formerly at war;—

      —to       seek a response to the observed fact that social injustice and political oppression go hand in hand with situations of economic despair.36

36.       In this context the Secretary General speaks of extending the United Nations powers in connection with preventive diplomacy, peace-keeping and peace-making. In his report Mr Boutros-Ghali regrets that United Nations operations have generally been launched after conflict has occurred, and urges that in future the organisation should be prepared for situations warranting preventive deployment of troops. Mr Boutros Ghali goes on in his report to describe various situations where such preventive deployment would be feasible.

i.       In cases of internal strife, the Secretary General considers that the United Nations should respect the sovereignty of the state in question and could therefore envisage action only with the consent of the government.

ii.       In inter-state disputes, preventive deployment of a United Nations presence in the territory of both states might be possible if both parties consent. The Secretary General also considers that preventive deployment would be possible in the territory of one state if the latter were in fear of an attack and requested this measure.

37.       Preventive diplomacy involves not only building confidence between the different parties, ascertaining the facts leading up to the disputes and setting up an early warning system, but also deploying United Nations forces for preventive purposes and creating demilitarised zones.

38.       Peacemaking operations are aimed at bringing the hostile parties together, essentially by peaceful means. However, if such means (action by the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Secretary General and the International Court of Justice), which include economic sanctions, prove fruitless, the Secretary General considers that the Security Council is empowered to undertake military action to keep or make peace and restore international security. This requires United Nations member states to undertake to make armed forces, assistance and facilities available to the Security Council, not only on an ad hoc basis but, and this is the nex, on a permanent basis.

39.       Peace-keeping consists in establishing a United Nations presence on the ground with the consent of the parties involved. Over the last few years, demand has been increasing for these operations, the best known of the United Nations. This has given rise to a whole series of problems in the fields of logistics, equipment, personnel and finances which are as yet unsolved due, mainly, to member states' reluctance to provide all the necessary resources.

40.       The last aspect of Mr Boutros-Ghali's "An Agenda for Peace" concerns the proposals for post-conflict peace-building. The Secretary General considers that peace-making and peace-keeping operations must come to include, after the cessation of hostilities, measures to promote a sense of confidence and well-being among people. These may include disarming the previously warring parties, restoring order, repatriating refugees, training security personnel, monitoring elections, protecting human rights and reforming or strengthening governmental institutions. Some consider that such efforts would necessitate resources currently unavailable to the United Nations.

41.       In his report the Secretary General also mentions co-operation with regional arrangements and organisations capable of working with the United Nations in the peace-keeping and international security fields. Although Mr Boutros-Ghali does not advocate a specific division of labour between the United Nations and the regional organisations, he puts forward the idea that regional arrangements or agencies in many cases possess a potential that could be utilised in carrying out the functions of the United Nations. It was, in fact, this idea that he mentioned during his talks with Mrs Lalumière.

42.       In my view, "An Agenda for Peace" as presented by Mr Boutros-Ghali to the Security Council is an extremely positive contribution to the United Nations efforts to adapt to the New World Order.

c.       The financing of the United Nations

43.       As Mr Boutros-Ghali pointed out in his "An Agenda for Peace", our vision cannot really extend to the prospect opening before us as long as our financing remains myopic. The question of the organisation's financing is therefore part of a much wider debate on the role which the United Nations wishes to play in the New World Order.

44.       In this respect, the report drawn up by an independent group of experts chaired by Mr Ogata and Mr Volker on the financing of the United Nations (General Assembly Doc. A/48/460) is particularly interesting. The report, which is currently under consideration, contains extremely useful recommendations regarding the financing of the UN.

45.       In 1992, the budget for peace-keeping operations, at 1 400 million dollars, overshot the organisation's ordinary budget. Appendix IV, which reproduces the United Nations 1992 budget, illustrates this situation. It only includes those United Nations activities which come under the direct authority of the Secretary General and the programmes of agencies which are co-ordinated by the UN Economic and Social Council, and thus excludes the budgets of the other United Nations specialised agencies.

46.       The organisation's ordinary budget is financed by the member states on the basis of a scale established by the General Assembly according to states' gross national product, though it also takes account of income per head of population and external debts. The contributions of Council of Europe member states and states whose parliaments hold special guest status with our Assembly come to just under 45% of the United Nations ordinary budget.

47.       Financing peace-keeping operations (to a 1992 total of almost 1 400 million dollars) is much more complicated because each operation is evaluated separately. Each mission has its own budget drawn up by the UN Secretariat General. When the budget is formally approved, the member states are asked to contribute to covering the cost of the mission. Contributions by member states are calculated on the basis of their contributions to the ordinary budget and a classification of states into four groups, namely the five permanent members of the Security Council, the developed countries, the developing countries and the underdeveloped countries. The members of the first two groups make an equivalent contribution to the peace-keeping operations as to the ordinary budget. The members of the third group only provide 20% of their contribution to the ordinary budget, and the last group 10%. The five permanent members of the Security Council are responsible for making up any difference. For example, the United States of America, which contributes 25% of the ordinary budget, finances over 30% of the peace-keeping operations. Council of Europe member states and states whose parliaments hold special guest status with our Assembly contribute 47% of the finances for these operations.

48.       We should also mention the problem of arrears. For instance, in 1993 only eighteen countries, altogether making up 16% of the ordinary budget, had paid their contribution by 31 January. Many states pay their contributions very late. At the end of 1992, some states owed the UN 500 million dollars. This figure represented 42% of the organisation's ordinary budget for 1992. At the end of 1992 the United States of America owed 240 million dollars and eighty-seven further states were behind in their financial obligations.

49.       This situation creates serious problems for the organisation. It is therefore no surprise that, in their recommendations, the budgetary experts have urged member states to pay their assessed contributions in full and on time. A system of quarterly payments might be envisaged, combined with charging interest on contributions that are not paid on time. The cost of financing peace-keeping operations is set to rise considerably in the years ahead and the experts have accordingly recommended setting up a reserve fund to finance the early stages of peace-keeping operations pending payment of contributions. In the meantime the United Nations has acted on this recommendation and a reserve fund of 150 million dollars was set up in 1992. Unfortunately the member states which provide armed forces for peace keeping operations still have to wait many months before their expenditure is defrayed by the UN.

50.       In his "Agenda for Peace", Mr Boutros-Ghali also formulated a whole series of proposals to rationalise the organisation's overall financial situation. These proposals, as well as those of the experts quoted below, are currently under consideration before the Fifth Commission of the General Assembly, which is responsible for financial matters.

d.       Adapting the structure of the United Nations Secretariat General

51.       On taking up the leadership of the organisation, Mr Boutros-Ghali tried to analyse whether the UN structures met the needs of the 1990s. He noted the need for reforms, but this finding met with some opposition within the Secretariat. Nevertheless, since Mr Boutros-Ghali's arrival, the number of specially appointed officials has been reduced by 36%. It must, however, be remembered that the organisation's Secretariat is highly fragmented, which to some extent reflects the interests of the different groups of member states. This puts pressure on the Secretary General, especially as regards the attribution of posts. However, no new posts are currently being created (the post of High Commissioner for Human Rights was an exception) and the whole staff policy is being assessed with a view to promoting staff mobility.

52.       One specific problem is the overall command of peace-keeping operations. With the assistance of military personnel on loan from the member states, a military planning unit has been set up within the department of peace keeping operations. This unit compensates for the lack of a real military department with a chief of staff. Until the United Nations acquires a permanent corps with a conventional chain of command, responsibility for peace-keeping operations will continue to be shared between the Secretary General's representative, who is the head of mission, and an officer who commands the military operations.

53.       In the field of emergency assistance in cases of natural disasters, epidemics, famines or mass movements of population, the scope for UN action has been strengthened. A reserve fund has been set up to enable the United Nations to take rapid action in the affected areas in order to prevent such situations from destabilising security there. A co-ordinator has also been appointed to ensure that the United Nations efforts are effective and do not compete with those of other organisations or states.

54.       On the preventive diplomacy front, the United Nations has been able to co-ordinate the various missions to observe elections in countries which have recently become democracies.

55.       No approach to improving the United Nations structures and means of action should overlook what is actually the organisation underlying principle: the security concept must be viewed within the overall United Nations framework. Security, for example, is not exclusively a matter of strategy or military action. United Nations efforts to establish peace and stability must therefore transcend military considerations.

56.       In many southern countries, inter-state and civil wars are the effect, or the cause, of a vicious circle of economic underdevelopment, famine, environmental damage, epidemics and mass movements of population.

57.       Democratic developments worldwide will not in themselves help reduce armed conflict: in fact, they are liable even to increase it by reviving nationalism and challenging the borders bequeathed by colonialism.

58.       According to a study by the Washington Institute of Peace, seventy-three out of the ninety-eight largest Third World countries have one or more minorities at risk, half of which (89 out of 179) have separatist aspirations.

59.       In addition to the conflicts arising with ethnic or religious causes, it is to be feared that water supply could become a major source of future conflicts. This is the case particularly in the Middle East and North Africa, where water supplies may prove insufficient for the increasing growing populations. Water will become another item on the list of natural resources, such as oil, which have been causing wars for centuries.

60.       Our global security is therefore not only threatened by wars, which all too often result from problems much far difficult to solve. They include threats to security and stability such as environmental damage, migrations, uncontrolled population growth, the overwhelming burden of debt, commercial barriers, drugs and the widening gap between rich and poor. All these issues must also be addressed in a world context, since world interdependence is no longer in doubt. Our security depends not only on that of other states but also on the way in which we manage to solve the aforementioned problems.

61.       That was the reason for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development which took place in Rio in 1992, as well as the second World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna in 1993. The theme of the third conference in 1994 will be population and development. A United Nations World Conference on Women is planned for 1995, probably to be followed by a World Summit on Social Development.

The sub-committee's main findings

62.       After a week in New York, the sub-committee's first impression from their contact with United Nations officials and the permanent representatives of certain member states was that there is room for improvement as far as mutual knowledge and understanding between the two organisations is concerned.

63.       Yet there is a whole series of issues which affect both the United Nations and the Council of Europe and could form a basis for concrete and practicable co-operation. The Council of Europe has unique experience in the fields of human rights and parliamentary democracy which might be exploited by the United Nations. We might mention the example of the Assembly's observer missions to the countries of central and eastern Europe which are of a particular interest for the electoral assistance unit in the United Nations Political Affairs Department.

64.       However, the sub-committee noted that if relations between the two organisations are to be improved, the Council of Europe's presence in New York has to be intensified, particularly during General Assembly sessions. A number of people told the sub-committee that a pragmatic approach was needed to prevent the observer seat reserved for the Council of Europe from remaining hopelessly empty, at least during General Assembly sessions.

65.       Several permanent representatives of Council of Europe member states with the United Nations have expressed their willingness to work with the Council of Europe to remedy this situation. One proposal which has been put forward is to organise periodical meetings in New York of permanent representatives of Council of Europe member states. Such meetings would address matters of interest to both organisations, and possibly lead to the adoption of joint positions within United Nations committees and working groups. It would be logical and desirable for a representative of the Council of Europe Secretariat to attend such meetings.

66.       The country currently holding the Chair of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe might take the initiative of calling such meetings and represent the Organisation at United Nations meetings, as does for instance the country holding the Chair of the CSCE Council of Ministers. The same country might also closely co-operate with the Secretariat of the Council of Europe, ensuring the periodical dissemination to the permanent delegations of member states of information on current Council of Europe activities having a direct bearing on the issues on the Security Council's or General Assembly's agenda.

67.       Of course I am aware that such Council of Europe member states could never equal that between the member states of the European Union. The European Union and the Council of Europe are too different in nature for any valid comparison, as Council of Europe member states should well know.

68.       The sub-committee was impressed by the importance which the European Union has taken on within the United Nations. In this respect it should be noted in particular that the Treaty on European Union expressly states that member states of the European Union should attempt to co-ordinate their positions within international organisations in order to take a common stance. It must be hoped that as the European Union joint foreign and security policy progresses its influence will increase. It should be remembered that in December 1993, the European Union contributed 30% of the United Nations ordinary budget and almost 33% of the peace-keeping operations budget.

69.       The political weight of the European Union could for instance be reflected in discussions on the reform of the Security Council, even if there are divergent views on this issue within the European Union itself. Some consider that one day the European Union could become a permanent member of the Security Council. On the other hand, I must point out that France and the United Kingdom currently see no prospects for such an eventuality.

70.       However that may be, the sub-committee noted an apparent consensus on the need to enlarge the Security Council, although the member states have widely divergent positions on the future number of members, the number of new permanent members and the matter of the right of veto. Some developing countries consider that it is indispensable to maintain geographical balance. If Germany and Japan became Security Council members, Europe and, particularly, the European Union, would have three permanent members whereas other continents such as Africa and Latin America would have none. Obviously, financial considerations should not be the only criteria in this field.

71.       It is also interesting to note the role played in the organisation by the General Assembly, which is made up of the delegations of member states. (A list indicating which Council of Europe member states include members of parliament in their national delegation is set out in Appendix V). Pursuant to the Charter, the General Assembly adopts resolutions on all subjects except those on the Security Council's agenda. As pointed out above, at its last session the General Assembly initiated discussions on the reform of the Security Council and set up working groups, which should be reporting to it at the next session. It will therefore be called upon to take some extremely important decisions for the organisation's future.

Conclusion

72.       The United Nations is at a turning point in its history. The information gathered by the sub-committee in New York, however, shows that opinions still diverge among member states on the organisation's future role and on how the proposals put forward by the Secretary General in his "Agenda for Peace" should be implemented. It would therefore seem necessary to return to this issue in a new report which would enable the Assembly to adopt a position on United Nations reform.

73.       I take the view that improving relations between the United Nations and the Council of Europe will have beneficial effects on both organisations. Indeed, improved mutual information on their respective activities can help obviate duplication on the European continent and rationalise the use of available resources.

74.       Council of Europe member states must therefore realise that it is in their interest to step up co-operation between the two organisations. Such an effort would comprise several strands. First of all, at Secretariat level, political dialogue and information exchange must be increased, particularly in the human rights field. Secondly, we must broach the matter of the Council of Europe's representation in New York. I consider that the country holding the Chair of the Committee of Ministers could play a major role in New York in both providing other member states with information on Council of Europe activities of interest to the United Nations and organising exchanges of views between the permanent delegations of member states.

75.       Of course, such a presence in New York through the intermediary of the country holding the Chair of the Committee of Ministers does not prevent the Council of Europe from being represented by its own staff when the General Assembly is discussing matters of interest to the Council. It would probably be possible to find a formula whereby such a presence could be maintained in New York without imposing any major financial burden on the Council of Europe and impinging on the operation of its Secretariat. I remain convinced that a flexible formula can be found for the Council of Europe presence in New York. The country holding the Chair of the Committee of Ministers could no doubt provide material assistance for the Council of Europe representative's work in New York.

76.       At the same time the Council of Europe should increase its co-operation with the United Nations Office in Geneva. The already existing political dialogue (see paragraph 8 above) with its Director General should continue as should co-operation with the various United Nations agencies located in Geneva (Commission on Human Rights, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, etc.).

77.       The parliamentary dimension of the Council of Europe's presence in New York is another matter. The meeting of the Sub-Committee on Relations with the United Nations in New York showed that the Secretary General of the United Nations, the President of the General Assembly and the President of the Security Council, as well as the permanent representatives of the member states, attach great importance to the presence of parliamentarians in New York. They could improve the information available to national parliaments and the public on the activities of the United Nations and generate awareness of the importance of this organisation's role in the years ahead. Some Council of Europe member states include parliamentarians in their delegations to the General Assembly. I feel that this practice should be encouraged. However, these visits to New York should be followed by reports within each national parliament in order to ensure that matters of interest to the whole international community are also discussed at national level.

78.       As far as the Parliamentary Assembly is concerned, in my view we must continue the practice which was launched this year and authorise the sub-committee to hold periodical meetings in New York. This would also enable an annual report on matters of direct concern to the Council of Europe discussed in the General Assembly to be submitted to our Assembly.

79.       This would ensure that the Assembly is better informed and better placed to support the initiatives of the United Nations Secretary General and Security Council in connection with the various issues on the Assembly's work programme (Cyprus, the former Yugoslavia, the Baltic States, the Caucasus, etc.).

80.       Lastly, I would like to bring up a matter which needs further discussion. The Council of Europe does not currently consider itself as a regional organisation within the meaning of Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter. In his "Agenda for Peace", Mr Boutros-Ghali points out that regional organisations can render great service if their activities are undertaken in a manner consistent with the purposes and principles of the Charter, and if their relationship with the United Nations, and particularly the Security Council, is governed by Chapter VIII. The question therefore arises whether relations between the United Nations and the Council of Europe could not be governed by fresh institutional links which would better cater for the new needs in terms of concrete and practicable co-operation.

81.       Admittedly, this is a very complex issue which I believe should be considered in a separate report in the near future. In the meantime, joint discussions on the matter could be launched by officials from both organisations. The governments of Council of Europe member states must realise that they have everything to gain from ensuring that the United Nations and the Council of Europe work towards the same ends.

APPENDIX I

Programme

of the meeting held in New York

from 6 to 10 December 1993

____

Monday 6 December 1993

9.30 a.m.       Meeting with Ambassador Paul Noterdaeme, Permanent Representative of Belgium to the UN.

11.30 a.m.       Meeting with Ambassador Alecos Shambos, Permanent Representative of Cyprus to the UN.

3.30 p.m.       Continuation of meeting with Ambassador Noterdaeme.

Tuesday 7 December 1993

10 a.m.       Meeting with Mr Derek Boothby, Director, Europe Division, Department of Political Affairs, and various desk officers.

3.30 p.m.       Meeting with Mr Marchant d'Ansembourg, Deputy Permanent Representative of the Netherlands to the UN.

5.15 p.m.       Meeting with Ambassador Wolzfeld, Permanent Representative of Luxembourg.

Wednesday 8 December 1993

9.30 a.m.       Meeting with Ambassador Juan Antonio Yáñez-Barnuevo, Permanent Representative of Spain to the UN.

11.15 a.m.       Meeting with Mr Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Secretary General of the UN.

3.15 p.m.       Meeting with Ambassador Mérimée, Permanent Representative of France to the UN.

5 p.m.       Meeting with Sir David Hannay, Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom to the UN.

Thursday 9 December 1993

9.15 a.m.       Meeting with Mr Marc van Craen, Deputy Permanent Representative of Belgium to the UN Office in Geneva (theme: human rights).

10.30 a.m.       Meeting with Ms Wells, Under Secretary General for Administration and Management at the UN.

11.30 a.m.       Meeting with Ambassador Li Zhaoxing, President of the Security Council and Permanent Representative of China to the UN.

3 p.m.       Meeting with Ms Ludwig, head of the Electoral Assistance Unit within the Department of Political Affairs.

4 p.m.       Meeting with Ambassador Insanally, President of the General Assembly and Permanent Representative of Guyana to the UN.

Friday 10 December 1993

10 a.m.       Attendance at the plenary session of the General Assembly: forty-fifth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

3.30 p.m.       Meeting with Ambassador Eduard Kukan, Permanent Representative of Slovakia to the UN and Chairman of the Third Committee of the General Assembly.

APPENDIX II

Relations between the Parliamentary Assembly and

the United Nations Organisation

1.       United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)

      The Council of Europe was invited to participate in the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro from 1 to 14 June 1992. The Parliamentary Assembly undertook a considerable effort to contribute to its deliberations (see Doc. 6600 and Resolution 983 (1992) on the need for a concerted preparation of the UNCED) and to implement its conclusions (see Doc. 6667 and Recommendation 1192 (1992) on United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, its outcome and implications for Europe). The Committee on the Environment, Regional Planning and Local Authorities was represented at the conference by Mrs Severinsen. Other members of the Assembly attended the conference as representatives of their national parliaments.

2.       United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (Unesco)

      On 22 April 1992 Unesco participated in the Parliamentary Assembly hearing on freshwater resource management organised by the Committee on the Environment, Regional Planning and Local Authorities.

3.       United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

      Throughout the last two years, the UNHCR continued its co-operation with the Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights and the Committee on Migration, Refugees and Demography.

4.       United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)

      Every year the Sub-Committee on Relations with International Organisations (Committee on Economic Affairs and Development) holds meetings in Geneva with UNECE and GATT senior officials.

      The Sub-Committee on Demography (Committee on Migration, Refugees and Demography) attended the European Population Conference (Geneva, 23-26 March 1993), which was jointly organised by the UNECE, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and the Council of Europe.

      The Parliamentary Assembly considered the activities of the UNECE in the environmental field during an exchange of views which was held in Paris in February 1992. In Recommendation 1192 (1992) on the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, its outcome and implications for Europe (adopted on 1 October 1992), the Assembly asked the Committee of Ministers to work towards close co-operation and division of labour with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe as one of the international organisations active in protecting natural resources in Europe.

5.       International Labour Organisation (ILO)

      The ILO was represented at the Parliamentary Conference "Progress of Economic Reform in Central and Eastern Europe: Lessons and Prospects" (Helsinki, 2-4 June 1993).

6.       World Health Organisation (WHO)

      The Committee on the Environment, Regional Planning and Local Authorities co-operates with the WHO/Geneva for the implementation of the Global Environmental Monitoring System for Water: the UN Agency co-ordinates the GEMS/Water programme and administers the funds received from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

      WHO representatives participated in the hearing on freshwater resources management held in Paris on 22 April 1992 by the Committee on the Environment, Regional Planning and Local Authorities.

7.       United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

      UNEP took part in the Pan-European Parliamentary Conference on the Protection of the Environment organised in Vienna from 23 to 26 October 1992 by the Committee on the Environment, Regional Planning and Local Authorities.

      The UNEP has adopted the four criteria regarding environmental protection proposed by the Parliamentary Assembly in its Resolution 981 (1992) on the new North-South relationship as conditions for maintaining aid to developing countries.

8.       Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)

      From 24 to 28 August 1992 the Assembly was represented in Prague at the 18th FAO Regional Conference for Europe in co-operation with UNECE.

APPENDIX III

Texts adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly concerning

the United Nations Security Council

(1992-93)

1993

29 September 1993

Recommendation 1221(1993) on the peace process in the Middle East

      "4.       The Assembly fully supports the current peace process as a means for resolving the Israeli-Arab conflict, on the basis of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 242 (1967) and 338 (1973)."

28 September 1993

Resolution 1010 (1993) on the situation of the refugees and displaced persons in Serbia, Montenegro and the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

      "12.       Therefore, while the Assembly remains convinced that the United Nations embargo on Serbia and Montenegro is justified as long as there is no end to the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina and the interests of Muslim community are not respected, in the light of the above considerations it appeals:

      i.       to the Security Council of the United Nations

      a.       to ensure that when implementing Resolutions 757 and 820 relating to the embargo on Serbia and Montenegro the Sanctions Committee does not delay the supply of humanitarian aid to refugees and displaced persons as well as to civilian population in Serbia and Montenegro;

      b.       to allow shipments of humanitarian aid through the Adriatic port of Bar (Montenegro);

      c.       to ensure that the terms of the peace plan to be concluded safeguard the right of return to their homes of the refugees and displaced persons and provide for the reconstruction of the towns and villages and places of worship damaged in the war;"

27 September 1993

Recommendation 1218 (1993) on establishing an international court to try serious violations of international humanitarian law

      "2.       It notes with satisfaction the decision in Resolution 827 of the United Nations Security Council to set up an international tribunal to prosecute persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1 January 1991.

      ...

      6.       The Assembly recommend that the Committee of Ministers:

      i.       respond to Resolution 827 in which the United Nations Security Council urged states and intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations to contribute funds, equipment and services to the international tribunal;

...

      iv.       submit to the United Nations Security Council to set up regional chambers for a future permanent court starting with a European chamber."

1 July 1993

Resolution 1004 (1993) on the United Nations embargo against Serbia and Montenegro

      "1.       The Assembly notes that, following the adoption by the United Nations Security Council of Resolution 757 (1992) instituting an economic embargo against the Republics of Serbia and Montenegro and of Resolution 787 (1992) strengthening the embargo, governments of Council of Europe member states have adopted a series of administrative — and sometimes even legislative — measures to implement these resolutions.

      2.       The United Nations Security Council, in its Resolution 820 (1993), adopted on 17 April 1993, forcefully condemned the violations of the embargo and adopted a whole range of measure intended to strengthen the embargo further. For example, transshipment of commodities and products by Serbia and Montenegro on the Danube are permitted only with the advance authorization of the United Nations Sanctions Committee. Furthermore, the neighbouring states are to prevent the passage of vehicles into or out of Serbia and Montenegro, except at a strictly limited number of border crossing points.

...

      11.       The Assembly calls upon the governments of Council of Europe member states and of states whose parliaments enjoy special guest status;

      i.       to adopt, should they not have done so already, the administrative and legislative provisions needed to apply the measures set out in United Nations Security Council Resolution 820 (1993) and intended to strengthen the embargo against Serbia and Montenegro;

...

      v.       to ask the United Nations Security Council to adopt measures, in the light of Article 50 of the Charter of the United Nations, to enable the countries bordering on Serbia and Montenegro to overcome the economic difficulties ensuing from the application of the embargo;"

13 May 1993

Resolution 999 (1993) on the situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina

      "5.       The Assembly welcomes and endorses United Nations Security Council Resolution 824, in particular the establishment of safe areas.

      6.       The Assembly calls upon the governments of the Council of Europe member states, especially those represented on the United Nations Security Council, to urge the Security Council:

      i.       to ensure full application of the existing embargo against Serbia and Montenegro;

      ii.       to propose the creation of an international criminal court to judge war crimes as already advocated by the Assembly in Recommendation 1189 (1992);

      iii.       to enlarge the mandate of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), and to put sufficient means at its disposal, not only to ensure compliance with all relevant Security Council resolutions, and, in particular, effectively to protect the safe areas set up under Security Council Resolution 824 (1993), but also to impose and maintain the cease-fire."

3 February 1993

Resolution 994 (1993) on the massive and flagrant violations of human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia

      "4.       The Assembly refers to the work of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and in particular to the reports on the human rights situation in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, drawn up by Mr Tadeusz Mazowiecki as Special Rapporteur, as well as to the work of the commission of enquiry to establish war crimes in Yugoslavia that has been set up by the United Nations Security Council. It welcomes the decision of its Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights to create an ad hoc sub-committee on the human rights situation in the former Yugoslavia."

1992

5 November 1992

Recommendation 1199 (1992) on the fight against international terrorism in Europe

      "4.       The Assembly therefore welcomes and supports United Nations Security Council Resolution 748 imposing sanctions on Libya for its failure to comply with earlier demands by the Security Council, including handing over the individuals held responsible for the bombing on the flight Pan Am 103 over Lockerbie, and full co-operation with the French authorities' investigations regarding the bombing of UTA flight 772.

30 June 1992

Resolution 984 (1992) on the crisis in the former Yugoslavia

      "12.       It fully endorses the Resolution 757 (1992) adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 30 May 1992 imposing sanctions on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and welcomes the adoption by the Assembly of the Western European Union of Recommendation 519 on the application of the United Nations Resolution 757.

      13.       In the light of the above, the Assembly invites the governments of member state:

      i.       to adopt immediately and fully the measures set out in Resolution 757 (1992) of the United Nations Security Council;

...

      vi.       to give full support to the United Nations Security Council Resolution 761 authorising the deployment of peace-keeping forces to ensure the functioning of Sarajevo airport and the distribution of humanitarian aid;

      vii.       to make available to the United Nations Security Council all necessary means to carry out the above tasks, and any other measure that may become necessary, should the parties concerned fail to co-operate;"

APPENDIX IV

United Nations budget for 1992

APPENDIX V

Council of Europe member states which include

members of parliament in their national delegations

to the United Nations General Assembly

On 6 October 1994 the following replies had been received:

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

AUSTRIA       yes

BELGIUM       yes

BULGARIA       no

CYPRUS       yes

CZECH REPUBLIC       yes

DENMARK       yes

ESTONIA       yes

FINLAND       yes

FRANCE       yes

GERMANY       yes

ICELAND       yes

IRELAND

ITALY       yes

LIECHTENSTEIN       never

LUXEMBOURG       never

MALTA       never

NETHERLANDS       yes

NORWAY       yes

POLAND       never

PORTUGAL       yes

ROMANIA       never

SPAIN       never

SWEDEN       yes

SWITZERLAND       is not a member

UNITED KINGDOM       never

      Reporting committee: Political Affairs Committee.

      Budgetary implications for the Assembly: to be assessed.

      Reference to committee: standing mandate.

      Draft recommendation, resolution and order unanimously adopted by the committee on 6 October 1994.

      Members of the committee: Mr Reddemann (Chairman), Mrs Baarveld-Schlaman (Vice-Chairperson), Lord Finsberg (Vice-Chairman), MM. Alvarez Cascos, Antretter (Alternate: Pfuhl), Barsony, Baumel, Bernardini, Björn Bjarnason, Bokov, Büchel, Dimas (Alternate: Pavlidis), Eörsi, Espersen, Fassino, Fogas, Galanos, Gricius, Güner, Hagård, Mrs Haller, Mrs Halonen (Alternate: Rehn), MM. Hardy, Hellström, Irmer, Iwinski, Kalus, Kaspereit (Alternate: de Lipkowski), Kelam, Kelchtermans, Kenneally, König (Alternate: Mautner Markhof), La Loggia, Mrs Lentz-Cornette (Alternate: Mrs Err), MM. van der Linden, Machete, Martins, Masseret, Mimaroǧlu, Muehlemann, Pahor, Panov, Mrs Papandreou, MM. Pozzo, de Puig , Radulescu Botica, Schieder, Seeuws, Severin, Sir Dudley Smith, Mr Spacek, Mrs Suchocka, MM. Thoresen, Vella.

      N.B.       The names of those members who took part in the meeting are printed in italics.

      Secretaries to the committee: Mr Hartland, Mr Kleijssen and Ms Chatzivassiliou.