Doc. 8306

26 January 1999

Recommendations of the Assembly

Replies from the Committee of Ministers

Recommendation 1334 (1997) on refugees, asylum-seekers and displaced persons in the Commonwealth of independent States (CIS)

Adopted at the 655th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies (12-13 January 1999)

Recommendation 1134 (1990) on the rights of minorities

Recommendation 1177 (1992) on the rights of minorities

Recommendation 1201 (1993) on an additional protocol on the rights of national minorities to the European Convention on Human Rights

Recommendation 1255 (1995) on the protection of the rights of national minorities

Recommendation 1285 (1996) on the rights of national minorities

Recommendation 1300 (1996) on the protection of the rights of minorities

Recommendation 1345 (1997) on the protection of national minorities

Recommendation 1323 (1997) on strengthening the machinery of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman of Degrading Treatment or Punishment

Recommendation 1315 (1997) on the minimum age for voting

Recommendation 1336 (1997) on combating child labour exploitation as a matter of priority

Adopted at the 656th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies (19 January 1999)

Recommendation 1337 (1997) on functioning of the institutions for the protection of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Recommendation 1367 (1998) on the reform of the United Nations

Adopted at the 657th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies (20-21 January 1999)

Recommendation 1334 (1997)       on refugees, asylum-seekers and displaced persons in the Commonwealth of independent States (CIS)

Reply by the Committee of Ministers:

The Committee of Ministers recalls the interim reply to Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1334 (1997) on refugees, asylum-seekers and displaced persons in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), adopted at the 600th meeting of the Deputies in September 1997.

Having consulted its Ad Hoc Committee of Experts on Legal Aspects of Territorial Asylum, Refugees and Stateless Persons (CAHAR), as well as the Governing Board of the Social Development Fund, concerning paragraph 9.v.g., the Committee of Ministers informs the Parliamentary Assembly as follows:

The Recommendation recalls the “Regional Conference to address the Problems of Refugees, Displaced Persons, Other Forms of Involuntary Displacement and Returnees in the Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and Relevant Neighbouring States”, held in Geneva from 30-31 May 1996 (CIS Conference). 87 States and 30 International Organisations attended the Conference which adopted a detailed final document, the Programme of Action. The Council of Europe actively participated in drafting this document.

The Programme of Action has become a point of reference for co-ordinated international action for the region, in the field of migration and refugees. As the document reads, “while this strategy has been formulated very specifically to apply to the CIS countries themselves, the participating States are committed to supporting the vital process of implementing the measures contained in the Programme of Action. All States and the international organisations concerned expressed their readiness to provide appropriate forms and levels of support for this implementation”. All the same, the action undertaken has not so far been at the level of the necessities established by the Conference. In this context the Committee of Ministers is of the opinion that the Conference requires an appropriate financial follow-up.

The Assembly in its above Recommendation, under paragraphs 9. (v) a-f, raised several issues. In order to ensure strict observance of fundamental principles of international law concerning the protection of the rights of refugees, asylum-seekers and displaced persons,

-       the Committee of Ministers, in its relevant legal texts, regularly recalls the importance of full respect of the principle of non-refoulement by all States, in particular, member States of the Council of Europe;

-       the Secretariat is currently involved in a joint exercise by CIS States, the Council of Europe, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe’s (OSCE) Office for Democracy Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) to find solutions to situations related to the “Propiska” system which affects freedom of movement and choice of residence.

The Committee of Ministers also endorses the observance of the principle of non-discrimination, in particular with regard to refugees, asylum-seekers and displaced persons.

The ratification without geographical limitation and the effective implementation of the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees as well as legal and practical compliance with Constitutional provisions by all CIS member States is encouraged by the Committee of Ministers.

The Committee of Ministers considers the voluntary return of refugees and internally displaced persons, in a safe and dignified manner, to the post-conflict zones as well as their appropriate social and economic conditions very important.

International co-operation, in co-ordination with the UNHCR and the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) as the two international agencies entrusted with the co-ordination of the follow-up of the CIS Conference, is essential for the CIS countries. Equally, adequate funding for the implementation measures is indispensable for the success of such measures.

In this context, it is important to realise through joint implementation by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the International Organisation for Migration and the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the information and training programmes in the field of protection of refugees, asylum-seekers and displaced persons, for the CIS States which are members of the Council of Europe or applicants for membership, as foreseen by paragraph 9 i), ii) and iii) of the Recommendation.

The Committee of Ministers will bear in mind the invitation by the Parliamentary Assembly to member States in the context of paragraph 9.vi of the Recommendation ("invite the member States to contribute generously to the funding of assistance programmes for refugees, asylum-seekers and displaced persons in the CIS").

Where the Social Development Fund is concerned (paragraph 9.v.g), up to the present, only one CIS member State (Moldova, on 4 May 1998) has joined.

Recommendation 1134 (1990)       on the rights of minorities

Recommendation 1177 (1992)       on the rights of minorities

Recommendation 1201 (1993)       on an additional protocol on the rights of national minorities to the European Convention on Human Rights

Recommendation 1255 (1995)       on the protection of the rights of national minorities

Recommendation 1285 (1996)       on the rights of national minorities

Recommendation 1300 (1996)       on the protection of the rights of minorities

Recommendation 1345 (1997)       on the protection of national minorities

Grouped reply by the Committee of Ministers:

The Parliamentary Assembly has addressed seven Recommendations to the Committee of Ministers since the beginning of the decade. Each of these recommendations has received an interim reply, with the exception of Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1345 (1997), on which the Committee of Ministers has requested an opinion from the Steering Committee (CDDH). The CDDH’s opinion is appended to this reply. The Committee fully subscribes to it. The adoption of interim replies was necessary because of the rapid evolution in questions pertaining to the protection of national minorities. Developments in this field will most certainly continue, particularly bearing in mind that at the Vienna Summit in 1993 awareness was expressed that the protection of national minorities is an essential element of stability and democratic security in our continent and one of the decisive criteria for assessing any application for membership, and that, as underlined by the Declaration and the Action Plan of the Strasbourg Summit, it will remain at the core of the Council of Europe in the future. It is, however, now possible, after a decade of intense ongoing activity, to take stock of the achievements of the Council of Europe in this field.

This overview is presented under the following headings:

a.       development of legal standards;

b.       monitoring;

c.       activities with member States and civil society.

A.       Development of legal standards

A first main thrust of the Recommendations of the Parliamentary Assembly has been for the adoption of international legal standards on the protection of persons belonging to national minorities. Since the beginning of the decade the following legally binding instruments have been adopted and have entered into force.

1.       European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages - ETS No. 148

      adopted 22 June 1992, entry into force 1 March 1998.

Parties are (as at 2 October 1998):        Croatia, Finland, Germany (per 1.1.99) Hungary, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland.

It has further been signed by:        Austria, Cyprus, Denmark, Luxembourg, Malta, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” and Ukraine.

2.       The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities - ETS No. 157

      adopted 10 November 1994, entry into force 1 February 1998.

Parties are:        Romania, Spain, Slovakia, Hungary, Cyprus, Moldova, San Marino, Estonia, “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”, Germany, Denmark, Finland, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, Ukraine, Malta, Slovenia, Austria, Armenia, the Russian Federation and Switzerland (per 1.2.99).

It has further been signed by:       Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal and Sweden.

These standards complement other Council of Europe conventions which have a bearing on the issue, notably the European Convention on Human Rights, the European Social Charter and the European Charter of Local Self Government.

The Vienna Summit also instructed the Committee of Ministers, in addition to drafting a framework Convention, "to begin work on drafting a protocol complementing the European Convention on Human Rights in the cultural field by provisions guaranteeing individual rights, in particular for persons belonging to national minorities."

The Ad Hoc Committee of Experts on Minorities (CAHMIN) considered this question and produced a Final Activity Report at the end of 1995. In January of 1996, the Committee of Ministers decided:

-       to suspend the work of the CAHMIN on the drafting of an Additional Protocol to safeguard the rights of the individual in the cultural field, its working papers being declassified and made available to interested circles;

-       to continue reflection on the feasibility of further standard setting in the cultural field and in the field of protection of national minorities, taking into account the Declaration adopted at the Vienna Summit.

The Committee of Ministers notes the disappointment of the Parliamentary Assembly at its decision, but also notes that an approach to an additional protocol as recommended by the Parliamentary Assembly, notably in Recommendation 1201, has proved not to be feasible for several reasons, inter alia because it contains certain elements (the definition of a national minority , the nature and scope of certain rights, etc) which do not muster the general support of all member States. It further notes that its decision to suspend the work does not imply a final decision on an additional protocol, but indeed leaves open the possibility of re-examining the question in the light of subsequent experience with the implementation of existing standards.

Finally, the Committee of Ministers draws attention to the term of reference it gave to the CDDH in March 1998 “to draft (…) an additional protocol or protocols to the European Convention on Human Rights broadening, in a general fashion, the field of application of Article 14, which would contain a non-exhaustive list of discrimination grounds”. The completion date for the elaboration of the draft protocol is 31 December 1999. Although the Committee of Ministers has not yet taken a final decision on the opening of such a Protocol or protocols to signature, it draws the attention of the Assembly to the relevance of this standard-setting activity i.a. for persons belonging to national minorities. The Committee of Ministers further recalls that, at the Strasbourg Summit, the Heads of State and Government emphasised the importance of "practical initiatives" aimed at "complement[ing] the Council of Europe’s standard-setting achievements".

B.       Monitoring/Institutional aspects

In its recommendations, the Parliamentary Assembly has both drawn attention to the need in general for the establishment of "a suitable mediation instrument", which includes a monitoring aspect (notably in Recommendation 1177) as well as given specific recommendations on the monitoring mechanism under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (notably in Recommendations 1255, 1285 and 1300).

With the entry into force of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, two specific convention-based monitoring mechanisms have been established. Issues may also come up in the context of supervision of other instruments, notably the ECHR and the European Social Charter. Furthermore, such questions may be addressed by the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) in its country-specific reports and may be touched upon by the Committee of Ministers, not only in exercising the functions attributed to it under the relevant conventions, but also in the context of its general monitoring procedures. The Committee of Ministers welcomes the fact that the Parliamentary Assembly, in its work on the monitoring of compliance by member States with commitments, also pays attention to minority issues. Furthermore, there is ongoing co-operation with other international organisations, including well-established contact and co-operation between the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities and relevant sections of the Council of Europe Secretariat.

The monitoring mechanism under the FCNM and particularly the composition and role of the Advisory Committee, as laid down in Resolution (97) 10, corresponds to a high degree with the recommendations developed by the Parliamentary Assembly to make it as independent, effective and transparent as possible (notably those contained in Recommendation 1300). It is noted that the Parliamentary Assembly expressed disappointment with the rules on election of the Advisory Committee and on the ways in which it may seek and obtain information (Recommendation 1345, para. 5).

The Committee of Ministers points out that the election procedure envisaged by the Parliamentary Assembly was not considered appropriate in the light of the role of the Advisory Committee as a body established to advise it on the adequacy of measures taken to implement the Convention. The Committee of Ministers wishes to stress that, in electing and appointing experts to the Advisory Committee, it gives full attention to the requirements of independence, impartiality and availability as laid down in Resolution (97) 10. Concerning the rules of seeking and obtaining information, the Committee of Ministers emphasises the fact that the Advisory Committee is free to receive information and that procedural requirements apply only to ensure that the Committee of Ministers is aware of requests for information being made. The Committee of Ministers will ensure that this procedure does not hinder the effective and efficient functioning of the Advisory Committee.

C.       Activities with member States and civil society

In addition to the setting of new international legal standards and establishment of corresponding monitoring mechanisms, a great number of other activities have been undertaken in the domain of protection of persons belonging to national minorities. These activities include work at European level, notably by Steering Committees and their subsidiary bodies, as well as activities with and in member States and candidate countries and civil society. Without seeking to be exhaustive, the following examples may be given:

-       Committee of Experts on Issues relating to the Protection of National Minorities (DH-MIN), which, for the first time, was set up as a permanent intergovernmental structure in this field;

-       the Confidence Building Measures Programme (CBM);

-       the Steering Committee on Migration (CDMG) and its specialists group on the Roma

      (MG-S-ROM);

-       the CDCC and its sub-committees CC-HER, CC-CULT and CC-PAT;

-       the Venice Commission;

-       the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities;

-       the Steering Committee on Human Rights (CDDH) and its Committee of Experts on issues relating to the Protection of National Minorities (DH-MIN);

-       the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance;

-       organisation of information meetings and technical expertise upon request (both within the Intergovernmental Programme of Activities and the Programme of Activities for Development and Consolidation of Democratic Stability (ADACS));

-       production and dissemination of information documents and organisation of NGO training;

-       project on Roma/Gypsies in Central and Eastern Europe;

-       joint programmes with the European Commission, “National Minorities in Europe” and “Integration of populations of foreign origins”.

All these activities aim to strengthen, implement and further develop the effective protection and integration on an equal footing in all walks of society of persons belonging to national minorities. The Committee of Ministers also recognises the importance and the need for maintaining or initiating dialogue with representatives of national minorities and civil society. It is through this broad spectrum of activities which makes it possible to put into effect the Plan of Action adopted at the Strasbourg Summit, in which the Heads of State and Government resolved:

Regular internal consultations take place to strengthen the cohesion between these efforts so as to ensure maximum effectiveness.

In conclusion, the Committee of Ministers, whilst recognising that it has not always been able to give effect to the Recommendations of the Parliamentary Assembly in full, considers that the actions it has taken over the last decade conform to a high degree with the main thrust of the Assembly’s concerns. It expresses its readiness to pursue the fruitful dialogue and co-operation, which has been established with the Assembly on this issue of protection of national minorities, which is crucial to the values of the Council of Europe and democratic stability in Europe.

Appendix to the reply of the Committee of Ministers to

Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1345 (1997)

Opinion of the CDDH on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1345 (1997)

on the protection of national minorities

1.       The Ministers' Deputies instructed the Steering Committee of Human Rights :

      "to give an opinion on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1345 (1997) on the protection of national minorities".

2.       The CDDH requested the Committee of Experts on Issues Relating to the Protection of National Minorities (DH-MIN) to prepare a draft opinion which was prepared by the DH-MIN at its first meeting from 17-20 March 1998.

General comments:

3.       Before turning to the specific items of this Recommendation under paragraphs 11.i-viii., the CDDH wishes to make a number of general remarks as well as to draw attention to a number of developments which have taken place since the adoption of this Recommendation.

4.       The CDDH is aware that the protection of national minorities continues to be an essential element of peace and security in Europe and points out that this was one of the items explicitly included in the Declaration and the Plan of Action adopted at the Strasbourg Summit in October 1997.

5.       Concerning the international legal instruments developed in the Council of Europe, it is to be noted that both the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities as well as the Charter for Regional or Minority languages have entered into force (on 1 February 1998 and 1 March 1998 respectively) and that the number of Parties to these instruments is 21 and 7 respectively, while further ratifications are anticipated in the near future.

6.       Concerning the election and appointment of members to the Advisory Committee under the Framework Convention, the CDDH points out that this Advisory Committee, unlike for example the European Commission of Human Rights, is a subsidiary body of the Committee of Ministers and was established accordingly. Regarding the way in which the Advisory Committee may seek and obtain information, the CDDH considers that it would not be appropriate to change the agreed rules at this stage. The rules should be now put into practice and experience will show whether these working arrangements prove satisfactory.

Comments regarding the recommendations contained in paragraphs 11.i.-viii. of the Recommendation:

7. (11.iii.)       Regarding intergovernmental co-operation the CDDH would firstly point out that in December 1997 the Ministers' Deputies adopted terms of reference for a new Committee of Experts Relating to the Protection of National Minorities (DH-MIN) which will act as a sub-committee to the Steering Committee of Human Rights. The terms of reference of the DH-MIN are:

"i.       to act as a forum for the exchange of information, views and experience on policies and good practices for the protection of national minorities at the domestic level and in the context of international instruments;

ii.       to identify and assess ways and means of further enhancing European co-operation on issues relating to the protection of national minorities and, where appropriate, to make proposals to this effect for consideration by the CDDH;

iii.       in so doing it shall, where appropriate,

8.       Furthermore the CDDH draws attention to the Plan of Action adopted at the Strasbourg Summit which states in respect of the protection of national minorities:

Part of the work of the DH-MIN will be of assistance in guiding the implementation of the Plan of Action, whilst other items of its work could actually constitute part of its implementation.

9. (11.iv.)       The CDDH recalls that the Ministers' Deputies in January 1996 suspended the work of the CAHMIN on the drafting of an Additional Protocol to safeguard the rights of the individual in the cultural field and further decided to continue reflection on the feasibility of further standard-setting in the cultural field and in the field of the protection of national minorities, taking into account the Declaration adopted at Vienna. It seems doubtful that an attempt to prepare an additional protocol would at this stage have the chance of achieving a more successful result than the previous attempt. It therefore would not recommend that this work currently be taken up again. The CDDH does not exclude the possibility that further developments, and in particular the experience drawn from the implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, may reveal a need to consider further standard-setting. The CDDH furthermore draws attention to the fact that it is currently carrying out work on the elaboration of a possible additional protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, widening the scope of Article 14, which expressly refers to national minorities.

10. (11.v.)       This recommendation pertains to the monitoring procedures of the Committee of Ministers and of the Parliamentary Assembly. The CDDH underlines the advantages that could result from strengthening co-operation with the European Union in this area.

11. (11.vi.)       The CDDH supports the recommended call upon the European Union to use the expertise available within the Council of Europe and notes in this context with satisfaction the ongoing co-operation, among others in the form of joint programmes.

12. (11.vii.)       The CDDH fully recognises the importance of the Confidence Building Measures Programme. It is to be noted that the number of countries that have made a voluntary contribution to the Confidence Building Measures Programme has meanwhile increased to eight (Finland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, San Marino, Switzerland and the United Kingdom).

13. (11.viii.)       The CDDH suggests to the Committee of Ministers that it expresses its recognition of the importance and the need for maintaining or initiating dialogue with representatives of national minorities and civil society.

Recommendation 1323 (1997)        on strengthening the machinery of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

Reply of the Committee of Ministers:

The Committee of Ministers welcomes and fully agrees with the importance attached by the Assembly to the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. In this context, the Committee of Ministers recalls the determination expressed by the Heads of State and Governments of the member States of the Council of Europe at their Second Summit to reinforce the means to prevent and combat torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

With regard to the specific recommendations formulated by the Assembly in paragraph 10 of the text, the Committee of Ministers gives the following replies:

Sub-paragraph i.: The Committee of Ministers notes with satisfaction that all member States have now ratified the Convention.

Sub-paragraph ii. and iii.: The Committee of Ministers unreservedly joins with the Assembly in its call to member States, which have not yet done so, to ratify the Protocols to the Convention as soon as possible.

Sub-paragraph iv.: The Committee of Ministers refers to and endorses the opinion of the Steering Committee on Human Rights (CDDH), adopted at its 42nd meeting (June 1997), of which the text is reproduced in the Appendix to this reply.

Sub-paragraph v.: The Committee of Ministers fully accepts the importance of the criteria set out in this sub-paragraph, as regards both the characteristics of the candidates for election to the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) and the need to ensure a balance between the sexes and a mix of competencies and qualifications which best enables the Committee to carry out its work. With this in mind, the Committee of Ministers carefully analyses the curricula vitae of candidates before proceeding to elections, taking into account any recommendations communicated to it by the Bureau of the Assembly.

Sub-paragraph vi.: With regard to the compatibility of any particular office with membership of the CPT, the Committee of Ministers considers that it would not be appropriate to seek to resolve such questions in advance. Given the wide variety of offices which could be concerned, it takes the view that such matters are best resolved if and when they arise in practice, on the basis of the principles of independence and impartiality of members of the CPT laid down in Article 4, para. 4 of the Convention, principles to which the Committee of Ministers reaffirms its strong attachment.

The Committee of Ministers notes, however, that by Order No. 530 (1997), paragraph 2(iii), the Parliamentary Assembly invited its Bureau, when drawing up lists of candidates for the CPT, to ask any candidate who is a member of the Parliamentary Assembly to undertake formally, should they be elected as member of the CPT, to resign as member of the Assembly.

Sub-paragraph vii.: In the Committee of Ministers’ view, the CPT being an independent body set up by virtue of a treaty, it lies within its own competence to decide upon such matters.

Sub-paragraph viii.: The Committee of Ministers agrees with the Assembly concerning the desirability of reinforcing the human and budgetary resources of the CPT and informs the Assembly that, in the context of the implementation of the Action Plan adopted by the Strasbourg Summit, it has allocated additional resources to the fight against torture and inhuman or degrading punishment or treatment.

Sub-paragraph ix.: In this context, the Committee of Ministers entirely agrees with the opinion expressed by the Assembly. As long ago as June 1991, the Committee of Ministers expressly invited Parties to the Convention to inform by appropriate means, the relevant national authorities of the existence, powers and role of the CPT; it is quite prepared to reiterate that invitation in the terms recommended by the Assembly. The Committee of Ministers also welcomes the practice which has been developed by the CPT itself of organising information seminars on its activities in States which have recently become Parties to the Convention."

Appendix to the reply of the Committee of Ministers to

Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1323 (1997)

Opinion of the CDDH

on paragraph 10 (iv) of Parliamentary Assembly

Recommendation 1323 (1997) on strengthening the machinery

of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture

and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

The CDDH has taken note with interest of the Parliamentary Assembly's proposal that consideration be given to the possibility of assigning to the CPT the responsibility for missing persons.

The CDDH considers that the problem of missing persons may raise serious human rights issues. It is not excluded that the CPT might be confronted with this question in cases of disappearances of persons who were previously detained.

However, the CDDH has serious doubts whether it is advisable to give general competence to the CPT to deal with this question. The CDDH notes that, apart from the fact that this would involve amending the Convention, the tracing of missing persons is quite a different activity from the work currently carried out by the CPT and requires very different working methods and expertise. In addition, the volume of work of the CPT under its existing mandate will increase considerably in the near future, with the growing number of ratifications of the Convention.

For these reasons, the CDDH considers that it would not be advisable to entrust the CPT with the proposed additional responsibilities for missing persons.

Finally, the CDDH draws attention to the work carried out by other international bodies in this area, notably in the framework of the United Nations and that of the International Committee of the Red Cross.

2.       agreed to bring this reply to the attention of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT);

3.       urged member States which have not yet done so to ratify the Protocols to the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, or to sign them without reservation as to ratification, as soon as possible;

4.       invited member States to promote awareness, at national and local level, of the CPT's activities, tasks and powers.

Recommendation 1315 (1997)        on the minimum age for voting

Reply of the Committee of Ministers:

The Committee of Ministers has closely considered Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1315 (1997) on the minimum age for voting. It shares the Assembly's concern on the one hand to involve the young more in democratic life by setting a standard minimum voting age of 18 years and on the other hand to develop young people's interest in democratic matters and create the necessary preconditions for their participation in civic life through education and promotion of community involvement.

Firstly, as regards harmonising the minimum voting age, a distinction should be drawn between voting and standing for election, to which different age requirements may apply.

As regards the right to vote, the Committee of Ministers points out that, as far back as 1972, it adopted Resolution (72) 29 on the lowering of the age of full legal capacity, in which, among other things, it recommended "governments of member States to lower the age of majority below 21 years and, if they deem it advisable, to fix that age at 18 years, provided that States may retain a higher age of capacity for the performance of certain limited and specified acts in fields where they believe that a higher degree of maturity is required". Recent studies in this field have shown that, except in certain cases, the minimum voting age is 18 years (see table, Appendix).

As regards the right to stand for election, the same studies show greater discrepancies, with the average varying between 18 and 23 years. The Committee of Ministers accepts that the minimum age for standing for election need not be the same as the minimum voting age and that States are entitled to take the view that more maturity is needed for standing for election, on condition, of course, that any age requirements "do not thwart the free expression of the opinion of the people in the choice of the legislature"1. However, the age-limits applied by the member States can be seen to be reasonable ones.

Secondly, as regards young people's participation in civic life through education and promotion of community involvement, the Committee of Ministers points out that in 1997 it adopted Recommendation R (97) 3 on youth participation and the future of civil society, which amply brings the Assembly's concerns to States' notice. In particular the Committee of Ministers recommended governments of member States to "support the development at local and regional levels of appropriate structures for political and civic participation" and "ensure that the Council of Europe's work on education for democracy in the school, higher education and vocational training systems [is] incorporated into the effective practice of democracy". Member States' implementation of this recommendation will be assessed in 1999.

In addition, the subject of youth participation in civic and political life has featured prominently in many ministerial conferences, most recently the Bucharest conference (27-29 April 1998). This recommended, among other things, that States facilitate education for citizenship, democracy and human rights by promoting the establishment and development of youth participation bodies in accordance with the aforementioned Committee of Ministers recommendation. In this connection the European Steering Committee for Intergovernmental Co-operation in the Youth Field (CDEJ) has published two books to create more awareness of work on the question2." The Conference also encouraged member States to renew political motivation, especially when considering the lowering of the age of the right to vote or the right to stand for election.

Appendix to the reply to the Recommendation / Annexe à la réponse à la Recommandation

Current situation in the different European countries/Situation actuelle dans les différents pays européens

COUNTRIES/PAYS

Age of civil majority/Age de la majorité civile

Voting rights/Age de droit de vote

National level/Niveau national

Regional level/Niveau régional

Local level/Niveau local

House of Deputies/

Assemblée nationale

Senate/

Sénat

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Albania/Albanie

18

18

18

/

/

18

18

18

18

Andorra/Andorre

18

18

18

/

/

/

 

18

18

Austria/Autriche

19

18

19

/

/

18

18/19

18

18/19

Republic of Belarus /

République de Belarus

18

18

21

/

/

18

21

18

21

Belgium/Belgique

18

18

18

18

21

18

18

18

18

Bosnia-Herzegovina /

Bosnie-Herzégovine

18

18

18

/

/

18

18

18

18

Bulgaria/Bulgarie

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

Croatia/Croatie

18

18

18

/

/

18

18

18

18

Cyprus/Chypre

18

18

21

/

/

/

/

18

21

Czech Republic /

République Tchèque

18

18

21

18

40

18

18

18

18

COUNTRIES/PAYS

Age of civil majority/Age de la majorité civile

Voting rights/Age de droit de vote

National level/Niveau national

Regional level/Niveau régional

Local level/Niveau local

House of Deputies/

Assemblée nationale

Senate/

Sénat

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Denmark/Danemark

18

18

18

/

/

18

18

18

18

Estonia/Estonie

18

18

21

/

/

18

18

18

18

Finland/Finlande

18

18

18

/

/

/

/

18

18

France

18

18

23

18

35

18

21

18

23

Germany/Allemagne

18

18

18

/

/

18

18

18

18

Greece/Grèce

18

18

/

/

/

18

/

18

/

Holy See/Saint Siège

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

Hungary/Hongrie

18

18

18

/

/

18

18

18

18

Iceland/Islande

18

18

18

/

/

/

/

18

18

Ireland/Irlande

18

18

21

18

21

18

21

18

21

Italy/Italie

18

18

21

25

35

18

21

18

21

Latvia/Lettonie

18

18

21

/

/

18

18

18

18

Liechtenstein

20

20

20

/

/

/

/

20

20

Lithuania/Lituanie

18

18

21

/

/

/

/

18

18

COUNTRIES/PAYS

Age of civil majority/Age de la majorité civile

Voting rights/Age de droit de vote

National level/Niveau national

Regional level/Niveau régional

Local level/Niveau local

House of Deputies/

Assemblée nationale

Senate/

Sénat

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Luxembourg

18

18

21

/

Conseil d'Etat 30

/

/

18

21

Malta/Malte

18

18

18

/

/

/

/

18

18

Moldova

18

18

21

18

21

18

21

18

21

Monaco

                 

Netherlands/Pays-Bas

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

Norway/Norvège

18

18

18

/

/

18

18

18

18

Poland/Pologne

18

18

21

18

21

18

18

18

18

Portugal

18

18

18

/

/

18

18

18

18

Romania/Roumanie

18

18

23

18

35

18

23

18

23

Russia/Russie

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

San Marino /

Saint-Marin

18

18

18

/

/

/

/

18

18

Slovak Republic /

République Slovaque

18

18

21

/

/

18

21

18

21

Slovenia/Slovénie

18

18

18

/

/

/

/

18

18

COUNTRIES/PAYS

Age of civil majority/Age de la majorité civile

Voting rights/Age de droit de vote

National level/Niveau national

Regional level/Niveau régional

Local level/Niveau local

House of Deputies/

Assemblée nationale

Senate/

Sénat

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Right to vote/

Electeur

Age to stand for election/

Eligibilité

Spain/Espagne

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

Sweden/Suède

18

18

18

/

/

18

18

18

18

Switzerland/Suisse

18

18

18

18

18

18

?

18

?

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia /

L'ex-République yougoslave de Macédoine

18

18

18

/

/

/

/

18

18

Turkey/Turquie

18

18

30

/

/

18

/

18

/

Ukraine

18

18

21

/

/

18

21

18

21

United Kingdom /

Royaume-Uni

18

18

21

/

(21)

/

/

18

21

Brief analytical comments on the preceding table:

-       age of civil majority : 18 years in all countries;

-       right to vote: 18 years in all countries;

-       right to stand for election; disparities in relation to the right to vote;

-       special situations where the minimum age for standing for election, in particular, is unusually high;

-       no country has currently lowered the minimum age under 18 years.

Recommendation 1336 (1997)        on combating child labour exploitation as a matter of priority:

Reply of the Committee of Ministers:

Having carefully examined Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1336 (1997) on combating child labour exploitation as a matter of priority, the Committee of Ministers wishes to assure the Assembly that it attaches the highest importance to this text. Wishing it to be followed up as concretely as possible, the Committee has brought the Recommendation to the attention of the European Committee for Social Cohesion (CDCS) in order that it incorporate the text into the Council of Europe’s Programme for Children.

The Committee of Ministers refers to Article 7 of the European Social Charter which guarantees children and young persons the right to protection. Having regard to the importance of the work carried out by the Charter’s supervisory bodies, the Committee of Ministers calls upon all member States that have not yet done so, to sign and ratify the Charter. Experience from the supervision of the Charter could be turned to account in the Council of Europe’s intergovernmental work and be used in the development of appropriate programmes, including those of the CDCS and its subordinate bodies.

Concerning the sexual exploitation of children, the Committee of Ministers welcomes the results of the regional follow-up meeting of the World Congress against the commercial sexual exploitation of children (Stockholm, August 1996), held in Strasbourg in April 1998. The Committee wishes to emphasise the importance of its Recommendation No R (91) 11 concerning sexual exploitation, pornography and prostitution of, and trafficking in, children and young adults, member States’ implementation of which was discussed during 1998 meetings.

The Appendix to this reply describes in greater detail the action taken on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1336. It also gives information on current work relating to children.

Appendix to the reply of the Committee of Ministers to

Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1336 (1997)

"1.       The Committee of Ministers first examined Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1336 (1997) on combating child labour exploitation as a matter of priority in July 1997 and decided, at that occasion, to send it to the governments of member States, and also to the Governmental Committee of the European Social Charter for possible opinion. In its comments, the Governmental Committee indicated, above all, that it was determined to combat the unlawful employment of children – in which it has the Committee of Ministers’ full support. It also made a number of interesting observations, while supporting the ideas put forward by the Assembly in Recommendation 1336.

2.       It should be noted that measures to protect children against labour exploitation, and against moral and physical dangers, occupies an important place in the European Social Charter and the revised Social Charter, particularly in Article 7. The Committee of Ministers recalls that the Heads of State and Government, in the Final Declaration and Action Plan which they adopted at the Strasbourg Summit in October 1997, urged as many States as possible to accede to the Social Charter and hoped that the number of ratifications would increase significantly. A year later, on 19 January 1999, the Charter was in force in 22 of the 40 member States, and had been signed by a further 9; the revised Charter, on the other hand, had been ratified by one member State and signed by 18 member States. The Protocol providing for a system of collective complaints by non-governmental organisations and representative organisations of workers and employers, which can play a part in combating unlawful child labour, came into force on 1 July 1998; on 19 January 1999, it was binding on

7 member States, and 4 others had signed it. Like the Parliamentary Assembly, which launched a campaign for ratification of the Charter in 1997, the Committee of Ministers considers that the Charter and its protocols are basic reference texts for social rights, and play an important role at European level in protecting children against labour exploitation.

3.       The national reports submitted by Contracting Parties to the European Social Charter in application of its supervision procedure, the conclusions of the Committee of Independent Experts and the reports of the Governmental Committee may provide useful guidance in identifying the most effective ways of combating child labour in European countries. The Committee of Ministers, which favours a better linkage between the work of the Social Charter and the inter-governmental work within the Council of Europe, has sent Recommendation 1336 and the Governmental Committee’s comments on it to the new European Committee for Social Cohesion (CDCS), which is to supervise all the Council of Europe's intergovernmental activities in the social policy field. The CDCS may also be able to exert considerable influence on implementation of the Council of Europe’s Programme for Children, called for by the Strasbourg Summit and launched by the Committee of Ministers at its 102nd session in May 1998. Principles for implementation of this programme were approved in June 1998. They take account, inter alia, of Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1286 (1996) on a European Strategy for Children, to which the Committee of Ministers replied on 15 December 1998.

4.       The Council of Europe's Programme for Children is directly based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Its aim is to define “the contours of a child-friendly society, i.e. a society in which […] the democratic forces of society defend children adequately against all forms of exploitation". It will be implemented in partnership with other international, governmental and non-governmental organisations, through a Forum for Children and three “focus groups”, each covering a separate area: I) social support systems for children at risk of, or who have been victims of, abuse, violence and exploitation; ii) children and child day care; iii) children and their environment. The Forum, which held its first meeting in November 1998, is subordinate to the CDCS and constitutes a particularly suitable body to assure follow-up action on Recommendation 1336. Recommendation 1336 and the comments of the Governmental Committee of the Social Charter will also be included in the file of the European Ministers responsible for Family Affairs, who will be holding their 26th conference on the theme "Towards a Child-friendly Society" (Stockholm, 14-16 June 1999).

5.       It should be emphasised that the Programme for Children will be an integral part of the activities launched to improve social cohesion in all the member States by strengthening social infrastructure for all members of the community, including children, who are sometimes excessively vulnerable. Action to remedy existing problems remains an absolute necessity, but the Committee of Ministers considers that the most effective form of social action is still prevention. This is why European States are setting out to create living conditions in which child labour can be avoided. The Committee of Ministers refers in this connection to its Recommendation No. R (94) 14 on coherent and integrated family policies and its Recommendation No. R (98) 8 on children’s participation in family and social life. Specifically, the Assembly's attention is drawn to the Appendix to the second Recommendation, which answers many of its concerns – particularly those regarding the health, education and social integration of children at risk. On the question of child labour, paragraph 14 of the Appendix speaks of the need to: "ensure that any type of work authorised for children be so organised as to promote their effective participation in family and social life, and contribute to their training and development, it being understood that illegal work by children is unacceptable". The Committee of Ministers considers that combating unlawful child labour requires, not just legislative measures, but also consistent action by labour and school inspectorates, teachers, educators, parents, trade unions, employers and NGOs.

6.       The pluridisciplinary activities provided for in the Programme for Children embody this approach. This is also the spirit in which the Committee of Ministers has decided to distribute Assembly Recommendation 1336 widely. In addition to the bodies referred to above, it is being sent to the European Committee on Legal Co-operation (CDCJ), the European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC), the Education Committee (CC-ED), and also to the non-governmental organisations which are in contact with the Council on questions relating to children, to the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and the Union of Industrial and Employers’ Confederations of Europe (UNICE), the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the World Trade Organisation (WTO), OECD, UNICEF, the European Commission and, finally, the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE). The Committee of Ministers also informs the Assembly that a study on "Children and work in Europe" was carried out in 1994-1995 in member States, under the aegis of the former Steering Committee for Employment and Labour (CDEM), and led, in 1996, to a very full report on this question.

7.       Concerning the problem of child labour at world level, the Committee of Ministers welcomes the inclusion of this question on the agenda for the 1998 Conference of the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Having a specific convention on child labour exploitation throughout the world is vital to eliminating the worst abuses. Europe has achieved substantial results in this area. Once again, it is enough to mention the ten paragraphs of Article 7 of the Social Charter, which makes, inter alia, 15 the minimum age for employment, or Article 17, paragraph 2, and Article 30 of the revised Charter, which are designed to guarantee children and adolescents free primary and secondary education, and to protect them, like all other members of the community, against poverty and social exclusion. These two phenomena favour unlawful and clandestine employment – often in their least acceptable forms, e.g. slavery or prostitution. Concerning sexual exploitation of children and Council of Europe action to combat this evil, the Committee of Ministers refers the Assembly to its reply to Recommendation 1371 (1998) on abuse and neglect of children. It wishes to add, however, that the Governmental Committee of the Social Charter is contributing to the efforts made in the intergovernmental sector, and wishes that a form for establishing report on application of the Charter ask Contracting Parties to give information on the subject in their reports on application of Article 7, paragraph 10 of the Charter.

Recommendation 1337 (1997)        on functioning of the institutions for the protection of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina:

Reply by the Committee of Ministers:

The Committee of Ministers recalls the interim reply to the Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1337 (1997) on the functioning of the institutions for the protection of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina adopted at the 600th meeting of their Deputies in September 1997.

As far as paragraph 7.i. of this Recommendation is concerned, it recalls that the functions of the Registrar of the Human Rights Chamber of Bosnia and Herzegovina are being undertaken by a member of staff of the Council of Europe, since November 1997. Assistance in the personnel field continues to be provided to the Office of the Human Rights Ombudsperson. Furthermore, study visits to the human rights protection institutions in Strasbourg have been organised for the national lawyers of both the Chamber and the Office of the Human Rights Ombudsperson, in order to allow them to gain a better knowledge of the European Convention on Human Rights and its protection mechanisms.

With regard to paragraph 7.ii., the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission) and the Directorate of Human Rights have established a Working Group on the Ombudsman institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A delegation from this Group contacted the authorities in the Republika Srpska in October 1998, including the new President, Mr Nikola Poplasen, in order to promote the draft law for an Ombudsman in this Entity. There is an agreement in principle concerning the usefulness of the institution and its organisation and functioning within the constitutional system of the Republika Srpska. Disagreement, however, exists on the composition of the institution; the Working Group’s proposal for a multi-ethnic institution composed of three Ombudsmen is opposed by the Bosnian Serb authorities. The Group is currently looking into this problem and alternatives put forward by the authorities.

The same Working Group has also prepared a draft organic law on the institution of the Ombudsman of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The basics of this draft law were approved at a meeting in December 1998, in which representatives of the Office of the High Representative and of the OSCE participated. A further meeting will be held in early 1999 to finalise the draft law. Moreover, a draft organic law on the Human Rights Ombudsperson is currently being prepared, in particular on the competences and relationship of that institution with the Entities’ mediation institutions.

At its 37th plenary session (11-12 December 1998), the Venice Commission, at the request of the High Representative, constituted a Working Group on the human rights protection mechanisms in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This group, which will take account of the experience gained concerning the functioning of the various human rights protection institutions in the country, could present its conclusions at the next plenary session of the Venice Commission (22-23 March 1999). The Committee of Ministers may provide a supplementary reply to Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1337 in the light of these conclusions. The Venice Commission has already given an opinion, of a negative nature, on the establishment of the Human Rights Court of the Federation (June 1997).

The Committee of Ministers reiterates the need for all competent authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina to co-operate closely with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague, in accordance with Article II.8 of Annex 4 to the Dayton / Paris Agreements (the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina) (cf. paragraph 7.iv; of the Recommendation). Developments in this respect will be considered in deliberations about the accession of the country to the Council of Europe.

Recommendation 1367 (1998)        on the reform of the United Nations:

Reply by the Committee of Ministers:

The Committee of Ministers has examined with great interest Recommendation 1367 (1998) of the Parliamentary Assembly on the reform of the United Nations. It generally shares the approach adopted by the Assembly and the underlying considerations. Confronted with the new challenges to build a greater Europe, the Council of Europe should play an important role and intensify its activities in different fields which all meet the objectives of the United Nations. In this context, the Committee of Ministers wishes to stress the importance of closer and more efficient, target-oriented co-operation between the Council of Europe and the United Nations.

More specifically, at the present stage, the Committee of Ministers wishes to address the requests in paragraph 15 of the Recommendation, knowing that the Assembly is presently pursuing its discussions on relations with the United Nations.

Ad paragraph 15.i.

Over the last years, Regional Organisations have been called to play an increasing and ever wider role in co-operation with the United Nations. The Council of Europe has been significantly stepping up such co-operation as well as its participation in meetings devoted to relations between Regional Organisations and the United Nations.

In 1994, a series of high-level meetings between the United Nations and Regional Organisations has been initiated by the then UN Secretary-General, Mr Boutros Boutros-Ghali, with a view to defining principles and modalities to guide co-operation between the UN and Regional Organisations in the field of international peace and security. In July 1998, the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, upon an invitation from the present UN Secretary-General Mr Kofi Annan, participated in the third of these meetings which brought together the Heads of Secretariat (or high-level representatives) of 15 Regional Organisations from all over the world (from Europe: Council of Europe, European Union, and Western European Union, as well as OSCE and NATO).

With contributions made also by several UN agencies and institutions (including the UN High Commissioners for Refugees and for Human Rights and the UN Development Programme), this meeting allowed participants to identify various root causes of conflicts, more and more of an intra-State nature, leading to structural instability among which a variety of factors such as violations of human rights, lack of good governance, rule of law and democratic principles. Participants recognised the need for better information, consultation and co-ordination between organisations, both at headquarters level and in the field, on the basis of awareness of each others' capabilities and comparative advantages, with a view to improving co-operation for early warning and conflict prevention.

A working-level follow-up meeting was held in New York in December 1998, with the aim of elaborating concrete modalities for better mutual information, consultation and co-ordination, multilaterally as well as bilaterally, between participating organisations.

One of the modalities of co-operation singled out as an example at the New York high-level meeting was the practice of Tripartite Meetings between the Council of Europe, the UN and the OSCE which are being organised every year at high level (with additional target-oriented meetings at a specialised working level) in order to promote co-ordination of activities in areas of common concern, mainly the reform processes in Central and Eastern Europe and post-conflict rehabilitation. The high degree of co-operation between the three parties in Bosnia and Herzegovina was referred to in this context.

These developments show that the present increased co-operation between the UN and Regional Organisations in matters relating to international peace and security, into which the Council of Europe is now involving itself, reaches out beyond specific objectives spelled out in some of the provisions of Chapter VIII of the UN Charter, the concept of security having now a much broader meaning than in the past.

Ad paragraph 15.ii.

Observer status with the General Assembly of the United Nations was granted to the Council of Europe in October 1989 by General Assembly Resolution 44/6.

The Secretary General of the Council of Europe was represented at the General Assembly on the occasion of its celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in December 1998, where the Council of Europe and the European Convention of Human Rights were referred to by representatives of a number of Council of Europe member countries, including Hungary in its capacity as country holding the Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers.

As in previous years a high-level representative of the Secretariat participated during the last Session of the UN General Assembly, in part of the work of the 3rd Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural).

The Committee of Ministers is ready to re-examine possibilities and modalities for an increased presence and visibility of the Council of Europe in the UN General Assembly, with the help of the delegation of the country holding its Chair. Exchanges could also be initiated with the Parliamentary Assembly on that item.

Ad paragraph 15.iii. and iv.

The Committee of Ministers continues the practice of meetings with experts to deal with work underway in the United Nations in the human rights field, specifically on items on the agenda of the UN Commission of Human Rights and, as the case may be, of the 3rd Committee of the UN General Assembly. These discussions have an open and informal character and are intended for the exchange of information on the items of the agenda. Further developments in that direction covering also other questions of direct concern to the Council of Europe, including questions dealt with by the UN General Assembly in New York, deserve further exploration by the Committee of Ministers. Reference should be made in this context, for instance, to the discussion within the Ad hoc Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law (CAHDI) on relevant items dealt with by the UN General Assembly and its 6th (Legal) Committee.

Ad paragraph 15.v.

The Committee of Ministers recalls its reply to Recommendation 1189 (1992) of the Parliamentary Assembly on the establishment of an International Criminal Court. In the same spirit the Committee of Ministers endorses and supports the outcome of the Rome Conference of July 1998 on the establishment of an International Criminal Court. It expresses the hope that the necessary ratifications will be reached soon in order for the Statute of the Court to enter into force.

Ad paragraph 15.vi.

The Committee of Ministers welcomes the continuation and deepening of the dialogue which the Secretary General has initiated with UN institutions both in Geneva and in New York, including with the UN Secretary-General himself.

Ad paragraph 15.vii.

The Tripartite meetings between the Council of Europe, the United Nations and the OSCE are being organised among Heads of Secretariat of the three parties. The Clerk of the Parliamentary Assembly is now associated. Work in this pattern of co-operation has given good results and the Committee of Ministers is not convinced that a substantial modification of its nature, which would require the agreement of all parties, is warranted.


1        See the judgement of the European Court of Human Rights of 2 March 1997 in the Mathieu-Mohin and Clerfayt case, Series A no.113 (concerning Article 3 of Protocol no. 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights).

2        "Youth participation, a compendium of CDEJ recommendations in this field"; "Keys to participation: a practitioner's guide". A second volume of the latter work is due out in 1999.