a. establishing bilateral agreements between destination countries and the countries of origin of victims, which should cover legal and police co-operation and humanitarian aspects, including preventive and information campaigns, training programmes and assistance programmes for the rehabilitation of victims;

b. creating special polices service and to sensibilise them to fight against trafficking and forced prostitution. Such services should have direct contacts with Interpol and Europol in order to ensure information exchange on traffickers networks and efficient collaboration in the detention of criminals;

c. encouraging constant cooperation and interaction between non-governmental organisations and consulates and police services responsible for the fight against trafficking;

d. setting up in close co-operation with the countries of origin prevention programmes focusing in particular on the deep-seated causes of trafficking in women, namely inequality between women and men in the labour market, in education and in access to certain professions; the feminisation of poverty, violence against women;

e. launching large information and awareness raising campaign addressed to all professionals who by the very nature of their work could be in contact with the victims and the traffickers. These campaigns should address officials of ministries especially concerned with the problem of trafficking, customs and police services, diplomatic representatives, public authorities, the media and humanitarian non-governmental organisations;

f. launching sex education programmes in schools, with particular emphasis on equality between women and men and on respect of rights of humain beeings and individual dignity. School curricula should include information on the risks of exploitation, sexual abuse and trafficking. Teachers should be trained in such a way as to incorporate a gender dimension into their teaching and to avoid gender stereotypes;

g. encouraging mass media to cover the work of non-governmental organisations, police services and parliamentary assemblies in fighting trafficking;

h. carring out permanent monitoring of advertisement in order to detect hidden information about networks of illegal transportation of human beings, illegal employment and developing effective mechanisms of responsibility for such a kind of advertisement;

viii. to adopt the following measures regarding victims of trafficking:

a. giving specific protection to victims;

b. setting up shelters for trafficking victims modelled on those already functioning in Italy, Belgium and Austria;

c. establishing telephone-hotlines in capitals and in different regions of each country providing information to potential trafficking victims and their families and assisting persons who have fallen victims to trafficking ;

d. introducing a right to compensation, insertion and rehabilitation for victims and setting up a support body to help their voluntary return to their countries of origin ;

e. taking all necessary measures to protect victims and witnesses, wishing to testify, and assuring protection for their families in the countries of origin;

f. increasing the state financing of the social services specialised in the assistance to the victims of trafficking and prostitution;

g. granting victims of trafficking a temporary and renewable resident permit on humanitarian grounds;

h. creating information and consulting services in embassies and consulates of the countries of origin, where women, who are leaving for abroad could receive necessary information and addresses of embassies and non-governmental organisations in the countries of destination providing assistance to women victims of trafficking;


1 Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men, Report on violence against women in Europe, 15 March 2000, Doc.8667.

2 ECE, Trafficking in women and girls, 1 December 1999, E/ECE/RW.2/2000/3.

3 Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Committee on Equality of Opportunity for Women and Men, Report on violence against women, 15 March 2000, Doc.8667, paragraph 53.

4 IOM, Pilot Project for the Return of Trafficked Migrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina

5        European Parliament, op.cit., p.3

6        European Parliament, op.cit., p.16 – ECE, op.cit., p.4, paragraph 9.

7        European Parliament, Report on the communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament “On new actions to combat trafficking in women”, 2 May 2000, pp 19 and 26.

8        Council of Europe, Report on violence against women, op.cit., paragraph 55.

9 Council of Europe, Report on the traffic in women and forced prostitution in Council of Europe member states, op.cit., paragraph 14.

10 Recommendation No.R(2000)11 adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 19 May 2000 and explanatory memorandum, trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

11 Council of Europe, Report on the traffic in women and forced prostitution in Council of Europe member states, op.cit., paragraph 12.