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Doc. 9452

7 May 2002

State of the world population

Report

Committee on Migration, Refugees and Demography

Rapporteur: Mrs Christa Lörcher, Germany, Socialist Group

Summary

When the governments of the world met in Cairo in 1994 at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and adopted a Programme of Action for 20 years aimed to guarantee universal access to sexual and reproductive health by 2015, an ambitious task was set in motion. This Programme of Action served as a focus for activity all around the world and at many different levels, involving actors as diverse as governments, civil society, UN agencies, parliamentarians and other decision-makers.

However, despite this international consensus, there is still a great deal to be achieved. In some least developed countries today more than one woman in ten aged between 15 and19 years old gives birth; in some countries, the overall contraceptive prevailing rate is as low as 1%, in some countries the HIV/AIDS prevailing rate is as high as 34% among women. Overall, since governments agreed to the ICPD Programme of Action in 1994, HIV/AIDS has continued to claim more lives, serious shortages in contraceptives have been declared all over the world and donor countries have only contributed approximately one third of the resources and funds they had identified would be necessary to reach the goal of universal access to sexual and reproductive health.

An important challenge for advancing the ICPD agenda is the creation and nurturing of an enabling environment in the domestic context, which can be realised through making positive changes in the national population and development policies. While many countries, both developed and developing, have increased their contributions to population and reproductive health activities since ICPD, the target of US$17 Billion is far from being met: there is a shortfall of about 36% of total funding, of which 24% from domestic funding and around 61% in external donor funding.

Parliamentarians are urged to take up leading roles in creating an enabling environment for sexual and reproductive health and rights and allocating the necessary domestic and development funds for fully implementing the Cairo Programme of Action. To achieve these objectives, parliamentarians are invited to cooperate with the relevant UN and civil society organisations, promote the creation of parliamentary groups on population, development and sexual and reproductive health and become involved in the activities of the Inter-European Parliamentary Forum on Population and Development.

I.       Draft recommendation

1.       In Western Europe, an average of 14 women per 100.000 die as a result of childbirth, while in Eastern Europe it is 50 women per 100.000 and in East Africa it is 1.300 women for every 100.000 (United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), State of the World Population Report 2001). While the largest number of HIV/AIDS cases and instances of maternal mortality occur in Sub-Saharan Africa, some parts of Europe can dubiously boast one of the highest rates of HIV/AIDS transmission and of reliance upon abortion.

2.       The Assembly notes that despite international consensus in guaranteeing sexual and reproductive health and rights as outlined in the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), and as endorsed by the Assembly’s recommendation on sustainable development and demographic change (Recommendation 1515 (2001), Doc. 8806), much work still needs to be accomplished with regard to creating an enabling environment for sexual and reproductive health and rights and providing the necessary funds, domestic and international, to reach the ICPD goals.

3.       The Assembly recalls its Recommendations 1515 (2001), 1260 (1995) and 1243 (1994), and further reaffirms its support for the Programme of Action adopted by the International Conference on Population and Development.

4.       The Assembly notes that of the financial commitments made by donor countries, there is currently a 61% shortfall in financing population activities and sexual and reproductive health and rights around the world.

5.       The Assembly further draws attention to the 24% shortfall in domestic spending on sexual and reproductive health and rights and therefore the need to prioritise sexual and reproductive health and rights within national health budgets.

6.       The Assembly considers that two remaining major challenges for the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action remain; the creation of an enabling environment and the fulfilment of financial commitments.

7.       The Assembly therefore recommends that the Committee of Ministers:

i.       immediately re-start work on the Steering Committee for Equality between Women and Men (CDEG) draft recommendation on the Right to Free Choice in Matters of Sexuality and Reproduction with a view to its adoption by 2004;

ii.       support the work of the European Population Committee (CAHP) on demographic trends, population and sexual and reproductive health and rights and widely disseminate the results of any research;

iii.       integrate ICPD commitments into the evaluation of Council of Europe member states honouring of obligations, particularly concerning the provision of a legislative framework guaranteeing a high level of sexual and reproductive health and rights;

iv.       monitor the adoption of national legislation which take up ICPD issues in member states, in collaboration with appropriate civil society organisations;

v.       look into the role of religion and international policy making, by calling upon expert testimonies from all sectors of society;

vi.       monitor funding to population and ICPD issues, especially bilateral and multilateral funds to UNFPA, International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and national non-governmental organisations in population, as well as funding for related population agencies;

vii.       call on governments of member states to reaffirm their support for the ICPD Programme of Action by:

a. increasing their level of spending on health to levels which are commensurate with the task of providing universal reproductive health by 2015;

b. increasing their Official Development Assistance (ODA) to reach the 0,7% target within a set timeframe;

c. increasing their funding for population and sexual and reproductive health activities to a level of 4% of ODA;

d. working to create all-party parliamentary groups on population and developments in their respective national parliaments, and work with national non-governmental organisations to join or create these parliamentary groups where they do not yet exist.

      e. seeking to include reference to spending on sexual and reproductive health and rights/ population assistance in the annual report on the State of the World Economy by the OECD.

II.       Draft order

1.       The Parliamentary Assembly referring to its Recommendation … (2002) on the state of the world population asks its relevant committees to:

i.       look into the possibilities for ensuring an Assembly presence at relevant United Nations meetings so as to ensure that the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD, Cairo 1994) commitments are upheld;

ii.       hold a conference on Population and Development in 2003 to follow-up the Global parliamentary Conference scheduled for November 2002 and to prepare for Cairo+10 in 2004;

iii.       continue work on the impact of the Mexico City Policy of US President George W. Bush on European based non-governmental organisations

iv.       look into possibilities for drawing up a European Strategy for Sexual and Reproductive Health

2.       The Parliamentary Assembly urges its members and appropriate committees:

i.       to invite UN and civil society experts in population and sexual and reproductive health and rights for periodic updates on the state of the world population;

ii.       to support activities to promote awareness of population and sexual and reproductive health and rights issues;

iii.       to support involvement in the activities of the Inter-European Parliamentary Forum on Population and Development.

III.       Explanatory Memorandum by Mrs Lörcher1

Preamble

In the world today, there are an estimated:

It is against this backdrop on the state of the world population that this report is based2.

1.       Introduction

1.       The State of the World Population is an issue which covers many seemingly disparate areas and issues which range from development assistance, gender, women’s rights, health, maternal mortality, child and infant mortality, male responsibility and involvement, sexuality, reproduction, rights and needs, personal choice, as well as contraception and abortion. A common thread through the whole range of these issues is the notion of ‘sexual and reproductive health and rights’. Indeed, by discussing the State of the World Population via the lens of sexual and reproductive health and rights, the connection and inter-dependence between all of these issues, and of Europe and the rest of the world, becomes clear.

2.       When Governments of the world met in Cairo in 1994 at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and adopted a Programme of Action (PoA) for 20 years aiming to guarantee universal access to sexual and reproductive health by 2015, an ambitious task was set in motion. This Programme of Action served as a focus for activity all around the world and at many different levels, involving actors as diverse as governments, civil society, UN agencies and parliamentarians and other decision-makers. Activities in fulfilling the Cairo Programme of Action focused on:

–       changing mentalities and behaviour;

–       enacting a conducive legislative framework;

–       providing the funds and supplies to ensure adequate access to reproductive health.

3.       The ICPD PoA outlined three main goals to meet when engaging in activities to change mentalities, create an enabling legislative framework and in providing the necessary funds and materials. These were to:

a.       progress towards gender equality and the empowerment of women should be demonstrated by eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005;

b.       reduce by 2/3 the 1990 mortality rate of infant and children and by ž maternal mortality by 2015;

c.       provide access through primary health-care systems to reproductive health for all individuals of appropriate ages, including safe and reliable family planning methods, as soon as possible and no later than 2015.

4.       These goals have been adopted by the international community and included in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) International Development Goals. However, despite this international consensus, there is still a great deal to be achieved. In some least developed countries today more than one woman in ten aged between 15-19 gives birth; in some countries, the overall contraceptive prevalence rate is as low as 1%, in some countries the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate can be as high as 34% among women. Overall, since Governments agreed to the ICPD PoA in 1994, HIV/AIDS has continued to claim more lives, serious shortages in contraceptives have been declared all over the world and donor countries have only contributed approximately one third of the resources and funds they had identified which would be necessary to reach the above-mentioned goals.

2.       The Commitment of the Assembly to the ICPD Programme of Action

5.       The Parliamentary Assembly’s commitment to these questions has also been amply demonstrated on repeated occasions. In 1995, the Assembly adopted the report on the “International Conference on Population and Development: Follow-up by the Council of Europe and its members states” (Rec. 1260 (1995), Doc. 7208) and more recently with the adoption of the report on “Demographic Change and sustainable Development” (Rec. 1515 (2001), Doc. 8806), which was the result of an 1999 Inter-parliamentary Conference on Sustainable Development and Demographic Change organised in conjunction with the other key actors in this field, namely the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the International Planned Parenthood Federation – European Network (IPPF EN)3.

6.       The activities of a number of the Assembly’s committees have also contributed to reaching the commitments and goals of the ICPD PoA. For example, the Reports on Demographic trends and human potential in the countries of central and Eastern Europe4, Female Genital Mutilation5, the Situation of lesbians and gays in Council of Europe member States6, Health Conditions of migrants and refugees in Europe7, and Trafficking in women8 have all contributed to reaching the goals of the ICPD. In addition, members of the Assembly have also initiated a number of expressions of support or calls for action with regard to specific issues relating to the ICPD PoA. Two such examples are the Motion for Resolution on the Impact of the Reinstatement of the Mexico City Policy (Global Gag Rule) by President Bush9, and most recently, the Written Declaration on US funding to UNFPA10.

7.       However, there is more that could be achieved by the Assembly in meeting the goals of the ICPD with regard to enacting a conducive legislative framework and in reaching the funding and resources targets.

3.       Creating an enabling environment

8.       An important challenge for advancing the ICPD agenda is the creation and nurturing of an enabling environment in the domestic context, which can be realised through making positive changes in the national population and development policies. It has been reported that about 54 countries, as of 2000, have taken action since the ICPD in this regard, on issues such as: quality health care, gender equality, sustainable development and environment, education, poverty, demographic data and information systems improvement. In order to fully implement the ICPD Programme of Action it is necessary to establish and/or improve information databases at the national, regional and global levels to monitor and evaluate progress made.

9.       Creating this enabling environment entails legislative change, and in the European region, this change must take place at all appropriate levels: domestic/national, European Union, the wider Europe of 43 and also at international level in the context of UN agreements and consensus.

10.       At domestic level, work is underway in many European countries on both old and ‘newer’ questions on various aspects of sexual and reproductive health and rights. Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) has been a subject for debate in numerous countries in Europe, as well as within the Assembly and the European Parliament. While increased awareness of this harmful practice is a positive development, the manner in which FGM is dealt with, particularly for the victims and perpetrators, as well as the possibilities for considering the threat of FGM as grounds for asylum, remains ambiguous in many European countries. In various countries, the debate over access to abortion still continues and since the start of 2001, has been the object of national debate in France, Switzerland, Spain and Ireland. In Portugal, the beginning of 2002 saw the conclusion of a trial of 17 women accused of performing and undergoing illegal abortions – causing national debate and international campaigns to support the accused.

11.       Newer issues, or newly discovered problems, are also coming to the forefront. In Sweden, the problem of ‘honour killings’ has gained international attention with the recent murder of Kurdish resident Fadime by her father. In other countries, the legalisation and provision of emergency contraception has only made slow progress.

12.       At European level, the process which will perhaps have the most significant impact on the environment for sexual and reproductive health and rights, will be the continued discussions and negotiations on the European Union Charter on Fundamental Rights which will be discussed in the context of the European Convention. In addition, the Steering Committee on Equality between women and men (CDEG) had begun work on a draft Recommendation on the right to free choice in matters of sexuality and reproduction which came to an end in 2000 following the reticence of a minority of member States. Your Rapporteur feels that the CDEG should re-start work on this draft Recommendation.

13.       At international level, there are constant meetings of the United Nations on population and development and related issues. For example, in 2002 there will be the UN Conference on Financing Development Aid in Monterrey, Mexico where the international community will reaffirm its commitment to sustainable development. The Children’s Summit in May 2002 is expected to look at the access to sexuality education for your people. In addition, in September 2002 there will be the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Rio+10), where the issue of population growth and environmental protection will need to be addressed in a constructive manner. The Summit on Sustainable Development (Rio+10) will have to look at issues of demographic growth, as well as the role of women in development in order to fully realise the goal charting a future for the development of the world’s poorest countries. In addition, in 2002 there will be a UN Conference on Ageing which has particular relevance for Europe as it will address the challenges related to the demographic shift of dealing with an older population. On this subject, the German Minister for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth has suggested holding a European follow-up Conference. The Demography Sub-Committee should ensure that it may contribute to this work. Finally, the ICPD itself will be the subject of discussion in 2004 on its 10-year anniversary.

14.       The actions of some leading countries also will have a bearing on the environment surrounding sexual and reproductive health and rights. The new American administration has taken actions which undermine the ability of other governments to promote in their own policies progress on sexual and reproductive health and rights. Such actions include the reinstatement of the Mexico City Policy, also called the Global Gag Rule, which prohibits US funds going to any international organisation which is even indirectly involved in abortion-related activities, even if these are funded by another government. Just recently, the same US administration has blocked funds to the UNFPA despite approval by the US Congress. Such actions cannot fail to have an impact on the European governments committed to achieving universal access to reproductive health care by the year 2015.

15.       An important element in creating an enabling environment for sexual and reproductive health and rights is the recognition of the rights of individuals to make free and informed choices about their lives. Unfortunately, there have been attempts in recent years by specific groups to limit progress in this area, sometimes even to limit debate on sexual and reproductive health and rights. Very often, religion is used as a pretext for such obstructive actions. In Ireland for example, family planning clinics have been stormed and invaded by anti-choice groups. In Russia, threats have been made against individuals working at the Russian Family Planning Association. In many cases, it is not even nationals who are the source of these anti-choice activities, but, as was the case in Ireland in 1999, well-known personalities in the anti-abortion movement from the United States seeking to export their intimidation tactics.

16.       Within the United Nations, a well-established informal alliance of repressive regimes has worked on hindering efforts to advance beyond the ICPD and even to reverse gains in guaranteeing free choice and access to information on reproductive health and sexuality. Most recently, this was the case with the UN Special Session on HIV/AIDS in June 2001 where reference to gay men as a high-risk group for HIV was blocked. In the negotiations on the Children’s Summit, this same group of nations sought to undermine the right of young people to have access to sexuality education. It is distressing to note that some Council of Europe members and observers have joined these repressive regimes in their stances at UN gatherings. In November 2001, several Members of the European Parliament held a Seminar on the Role of Religion in International Policy-Making. This seminar provided a thoughtful examination of the proper role of religions in international governance through presentations from experts from a dozen countries. The overall consensus of the meeting was that religions are entitled to participate in public policy formation on an equal footing with civil society organisations, bur not in a privileged, nor a marginalized role.

4.       Resource Mobilisation

17.       At the international Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994, the international community set a global resource target for population and reproductive health programmes, including family planning, for the year 2000 of US$17 Billion, of which US$11.3 Billion would come from domestic funding and the remaining US$5.7 Billion from external donor funding. While many countries, both developed and developing, have increased their contributions to population and reproductive health activities since ICPD, the target of US$17 Billion is far from being met: there is a shortfall of about 36% of total funding, of which 24% from domestic funding and around 61% in external donor funding.

18.       The Financial resources required to address demographic challenges from 2000 to 2015 were identified as follows in the ICPD PoA (§ 13.15 & 14.11):

In Billions of US$

Year

Domestic Resources

External Assistance

Total Resources

2000

11.3

    5.7

    17.0

2005

12.4

    6.1

    18.5

2010

13.7

    6.8

    20.5

2015

14.5

    7.2

    21.7

a.       Domestic Funding

19.       The primary source of funding for sexual and reproductive health services, in almost every country, is domestic resources from the national health budget. Prioritising domestic funds to be allocated to sexual and reproductive health is essential for the long-term as it is proof of a country’s commitment to ensuring the well-being of its people. Moreover, relying upon domestic resources provides more stability and continuity of services than depending upon external donors.

20.       The level of public expenditure on health varies greatly from country to country, but also between different regions of the world. For example, in India only 0,8% of central government expenditure is directed at health, while in Germany it is 7,9% of central government expenditure. Within the European region, there are similar extremes with 0,5% of Georgian central government expenditure aimed at health, compared to 8,1% in Croatia.11

21.       In the European region, the impact of the low investment and priority in health can already be felt. In countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, the rates of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have risen to staggering levels in the past decade. In 2000, 80.000 new cases of HIV were reported in the Russian Federation alone, and the trend is similar in many countries of the region.12 In many countries, high rates of abortion remain worrying, particularly as abortion is relied upon as a method of fertility regulation due to the lack of adequate reproductive health, including family planning services. In Western Europe, an average of 14 women per 100.000 die as a result of childbirth, while in Eastern Europe it is 50 women per 100.000 and in East Africa 1.300 women for every 100.00013. While the largest number of HIV/AIDS cases and instances of maternal mortality occur in Sub-Saharan Africa, some parts of Europe can dubiously boast one of the highest rates of HIV/AIDS transmission and of reliance upon abortion.

22.       However, prioritisation of sexual and reproductive health in national debate and in national budgets has been proven to be effective. For example, when President Museveni of Uganda decided to make HIV/AIDS a national priority, Uganda soon became one of only two Sub-Saharan countries where the spread of HIV/AIDS was contained. Regardless of the economic state of a country, adequate prioritisation of national health expenditure is a necessity for the long-term welfare of its population.

b.       International Donor Funding

23.       European donors14 account for more than 53% of total development aid. It is only some European donors who have reached the UN target of allocating 0.7% of their GNP to development aid (Denmark, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden). However, donors from Europe account for only 40% of aid to population and sexual and reproductive health activities. According to a study of the IPPF EN and the German non-governmental organisation Deutsche Stiftung Weltbevölkerung (DSW), six of the 18 European donors do not have a population and sexual and reproductive health element in their international development policy. Furthermore, 12 of the 18 donor countries in Europe do not even direct 2% of their overseas development aid (ODA) to population related activities. This is far below the 4% of ODA for population activities called for in the Assembly’s Recommendations on Demographic Change and Sustainable Development of last year. Also, it does not take into account the Assembly’s recommendation that the integration of the population dimension should be made in all development policies.

24.       Currently, multi-lateral funding towards the two largest conduits for population assistance, namely the UNFPA and IPPF, have been stagnating or decreasing. Perhaps the largest single blow to funding for population activities has been the decisions of US President Bush to de-fund IPPF by US$8 Million in 2001, and more recently by US$34 Million to UNFPA in 2002. Similarly, the new Danish Government has decided to reduce its ODA to a level which it feels is more commensurate with its role in the donor community, ie. it does not wish to shoulder such a large share of development aid when other donor countries are not living up to their commitments. As a result, UNFPA and IPPF each expect to lose between US $ 3 to 4 Million. The current economic crisis in Japan has meant a stagnation in the Japanese contribution to these two organisation. Overall, 8 European donors contribute less than US$3 Million to UNFPA annually, and 8 of the 18 European donors do not contribute to IPPF at all.

25.       The case of the new Danish Government’s drastic cuts in ODA merits special consideration. Even with such cuts (the full extent still depends upon its passage through the Danish Parliament), Denmark will remain one of the leading donor countries in the world. On previous occasions, Denmark contributed up to 1,5% of its GNP to ODA (compared to the EU Member State average of 0,33% of GNP to ODA), and now wishes to return to a more appropriate level. With elections coming in a number of important donor countries in the next two years (Germany, Sweden, Netherlands, Finland, France and Ireland), one can only hope that the Danish ODA reforms will not set an example for other countries to follow.

26.       On the other hand, there are some signs that are optimistic for international donor commitment to increased development aid in general, and to population and sexual and reproductive health and rights in particular. In March 2002, Heads of Government met in Monterrey, Mexico at the UN Conference on Financing for Development Aid. This was an occasion to reaffirm the donor community’s support to reach UN targets for development aid. With regard to funding for population and sexual and reproductive health and rights, the European Commission has taken positive measures towards ‘filling the decency gap’ with IPPF and UNFPA arising from the loss of US funding.

27.       Moreover, in November 2001, the EU Development Council agreed to give the European Commission competence to monitor the progress of EU Member States in meeting the UN target of allocating 0,7% of GNP to ODA. The European Commission is expected to open a dialogue with EU Member States and set a timetable for reaching this target. The Assembly could usefully play a role in this monitoring by looking into coordination with non-EU donor and potential donor countries. Moreover, national parliamentarians could play an essential role in following up the monitoring process.

28.       Finally, given the current dearth in funds for population activities, a global parliamentary conference is planned to take place in 2002 with the support of regional parliamentary networks on Population and Development as represented in Europe by the Inter-European Parliamentary Forum on Population and Development. This global conference would look at resource mobilisation for population and creating and enabling environment.

c.       Contraceptive Supplies Shortage

29.       One aspect which often goes unnoticed: ensuring that contraceptives are available to meet the increasing demand. UNFPA estimated that the shortfall in meeting contraceptive demand in 2000 to be equivalent to US$ 85 Million. This shortage in contraceptive commodities is due to three main and inter-linked factors. First, donors are not living up to the commitments they agreed to and, consequently, donor funding of contraceptives has declined since its peak in 1996. Second, the number of users of family planning services in developing countries is increasing. By the year 2015, it is expected to increase by 40%. And third, half of the increase in family planning users will be a result of the rising number of women of reproductive age (15-49 years of age), adding to the demand for contraception.

30.       In developing countries, about six out of ten couples now use family planning, compared with one in ten in the 1960s. Demand for contraceptives is projected to grow as a consequence both of population growth and an increase in the use of contraception. There have been reports of shortages from all regions of the world. The most severe shortages are in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Angola and Namibia. Several Eastern European countries, including the Russian Federation, have reported serious shortfalls, as have Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

31.       In response to the alarm call in 2001 on the state of contraceptive supplies, only the governments of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands provided emergency funds to the UNFPA.

5.       The role of European Parliamentarians

32.       The ICPD states that “Governments and parliamentarians, in collaboration with the international community and non-governmental organizations, should make the necessary plans in accordance with national concerns and priorities and take the actions required to measure, assess, monitor and evaluate progress towards meeting the goals of the present Programme of Action…(13.6)

33.       Since the adoption of the Report on Demographic Change and Sustainable Development in 2001 a great deal of progress has been achieved in involving parliamentarians around Europe in the implementation of the ICPD. In the afore-mentioned report, specific support was expressed for the then newly established Inter-European Parliamentary Forum on Population and Development (IEPFPD) and for the creation of national parliamentary structures on population, development and sexual and reproductive health.

34.       Individual members of the Assembly have also taken active roles in promoting awareness of population issues within the Assembly and also in their national parliaments. Since the Assembly’s statement of support for the IEPFPD, national structures have been created in the parliaments of Belgium, Turkey and Russia bringing the total number of European countries with parliamentary groups on population, development, and sexual and reproductive health and rights to fourteen (including the European Parliament).

35.       While this is a significant progress, 14 countries out of 43 still leaves much work to be done. Your Rapporteur would like to emphasise once again the importance of creating national parliamentary structures to address population, development and sexual and reproductive health and rights in all countries in Europe. These parliamentary groups on population, development and sexual and reproductive health and rights must be capable of generating the support required to mobilise domestic and international funding as well as promote the creation of an enabling legislative environment.

6.       Conclusions – Avenues for Action

36.       Europe has always been a pioneer in protecting sexual and reproductive health and rights, population and development. In light of the international context, this leadership role must be further strengthened. In the short and mid-term future, a number of interesting avenues to further the genuine implementation of the Cairo Programme of Action on Population and Development present themselves and your Rapporteur would like to emphasise the importance for the Assembly to seize these opportunities.

ACRONYMS:

FGM        Female Genital Mutilation

ICPD       International Conference on Population and Development

IEPFPD       Inter-European Parliamentary Forum on Population and Development

IPPF EN:        International Planned Parenthood Federation – European Network

OECD       Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

PoA        Programme of Action

UNFPA:        United Nations Population Fund

CONTRIBUTIONS TO POPULATION ISSUES BY THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE MEMBER STATES AND STATES WITH AN OBSERVER STATUS IN 1999

Name of the State

ODA

In USD

Total Population spending

In USD

Including:

Contribution to UNFPA(In USD)

Contributions to IPPF

(In USD)

Albania

n.a

0

0

0

Andorra

n.a

0

0

0

Armenia

n.a

0

0

0

Austria

527 000 000

1 000 000

420 000

0

Azerbaijan

n.a

0

0

0

Belarus*

n.a

0

0

0

Belgium

760 000 000

10 000 000

1 750 000

62 000

Bosnia and Herzegovina

0

0

0

0

Bulgaria

0

0

(pledged) 159 574

0

Canada**

1 706 000 000

37 000 000

6 030 000

2 950 000

Croatia

0

0

0

0

Cyprus

0

0

0

0

Czech Republic

15 000 000

n.a

6 000

0

Denmark

1 733 000 000

55 000 000

27 870 000

10 005 000

Estonia

500 000

n.a

0

0

Finland

416 000 000

20 000 000

12 580 000

170 000

France

5 639 000 000

8

1 130 000

0

Georgia

0

0

21 750 000

0

Germany

5 515 000 000

120 000 000

0

5 439 000

Greece

194 000 000

0

0

0

Hungary

600 000

n.a

0

0

Iceland

11.1

n.a

6 938

0

Ireland

245 000 000

3 000 000

550 245

0

Israel***

n.a

n.a

0

0

Italy

1 806 000 000

14 000 000

2 971 254

0

Japan**

15 323 000 000

112 000 000

48 285 000

18 200 000

Latvien

600 000

n.a

0

0

Liechtenstein

n.a

n.a

3 472

0

Lithuania

0

n.a

0

0

Luxembourg

119 000 000

3 000 000

426 178

0

Macedonia

0

0

0

0

Malta

n.a

n.a

0

0

Mexico**

n.a

n.a

50 000

0

Moldova

0

0

0

0

Monaco*

n.a

n.a

0

0

Netherlands

3 134 000 000

116 000 000

42 768 588

5 380 000

Norway

1 370 000 000

62 000 000

25 249 326

5 815 000

Poland

20 000 000

n.a

22 611

0

Portugal

276 000 000

400 000

40 000

0

Romania

0

0

6 367

0

Russia

0

0

150 000

0

San Marino

0

0

0

0

Slovakia

8 000 000

n.a

0

0

Slovenia

2 000 000

n.a

0

0

Spain

1 363 000 000

9 000 000

438 546

0

Sweden

1 630 000 000

62 000 000

16 710 465

8 133 000

Switzerland

984 000 000

18 000 000

7 189 542

667 000

Turkey (1998)

102 000 000

n.a

108 000

0

United Kingdom

3 426 000 000

96 000 000

24 040 684

9 620 000

USA**

9 145 000 000

603 000 000

0

6 310 000

Yugoslavia

0

0

0

0

*        - States that have applied for the Council of Europe

**        - States that have an observer status at the Council of Europe

***        - The Knesset of Israel has an observer status in the Council of Europe

Sources for ODA figures 1999: OECD DAC Statistics, “Development Policy in the Candidate countries” Trialog, Lena Krichewsky, and Ministries of Foreign Affairs of Iceland

Sources for Population expenditure 1999: “Financial Resources Flows for Population activities in 1999”, UNFPA-NIDI

Sources for UNFPA and IPPF contributions: UNFPA Annual Report 1999, IPPF Financial Statements 1999

APPENDIX 2

INTER-EUROPEAN PARLIAMENTARY FORUM ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT

MEMBER ALL-PARTY PARLIAMENTARY GROUPS

Reporting committee: Committee on Migration, Refugees and Demography.

Reference to committee: Doc. 9090 and Reference No. 2615 of 22 May 2001.

Draft recommendation and draft order unanimously adopted by the committee on 22 April 2002.

Members of the committee: Mr Iwiński (Chairperson) (alternate: Gadzinowski), Mr Einarsson (1st Vice-Chairperson), Mrs Vermot-Mangold (2nd Vice-Chairperson), Mrs Bušić (3rd Vice-Chairperson), Mrs Aguiar, MM. Akhvlediani, Aliyev G., Mrs van Ardenne-van der Hoeven, MM. de Arístegui (alternate: Mrs Torrado), Arzilli, Bernik, Mrs Björnemalm, MM. Van den Brande, Branger, Brînzan, Brunhart, Christodoulides, Cilevičs, Connor, Danieli, Debarge, Dedja, Díaz de Mera, Dmitrijevas, Ehrmann, Mrs Err, Mrs Fehr, Mrs Frimannsdóttir, MM. Grzesik, Grzyb, Hancock, Hordies, Hovhannisyan, Ilaşcu, Ivanov, Jařab, Lord Judd, MM. Karpov, Kirilov, Kolb, Koulouris (alternate: Mrs Katseli), Kulikov, Kvakkestad, Laakso, Le Guen, Liapis, Mrs Lörcher, MM. Loutfi, Luís, Mrs Markovska, MM. Mutman, Naro, Nessa, Oliynyk, Mrs Onur, MM. Ouzký, Popa, Prijmireanu, Pullicino Orlando, Saglam, von Schmude, Schweitzer, Mrs Shakhtakhtinskaya, MM. Slutsky, Soendergaard, Mrs Stoisits, MM. Szinyei, Tabajdi, Telek, Tkáč, Udovenko, Wilkinson, Wray (alternate: Ms McCafferty), Yáńez-Barnuevo, Zavgayev (alternate: Fedorov), Zhirinovsky (alternate: Mrs Gamzatova), Mrs de Zulueta, Mrs Zwerver.

N.B. The names of those members present at the meeting are printed in italics.

Secretaries of the committee: Mr Lervik, Mrs Nachilo, Ms Sirtori.


1 Your Rapporteur wishes to thank the Secretariat of the United Nations Population Fund, and more specifically Mr Neil Datta of the International Planned Parenthood Federation – European Network, for the most valuable assistance in drawing up the present report.

2 All figures quoted come from UN sources

3 Proceedings published under reference AS/Mig (2000) 24.

4 Report of Ivan Chyzh, Doc. 8463, Rec. 1482 (2000).

5 Report of Ruth-Gaby Vermot-Mangold, Doc. 9076, Rés. 1247 (2001).

6 Report of Csaba Tabajdi, Doc. 8755, Rec. 1474 (2000).

7 Report of Lord Ponsonby, Doc. 8650, Rec. 1503 (2001).

8 Report of Lydie Err, Doc. 9190, Rec. 1545 (2002).

9 Presented by Ans Zwerver, Doc. 9094, 2001.

10 Doc 9338, January 2002.

11 UNFPA, State of the World Population Report 2001.

12 HIV/AIDS Surveillance in Europe, Mid-year report 2001, N° 65, EuroHIV.

13 UNFPA, State of the World Population Report 2001.

14 European donors include: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, European Commission, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom. This definition is based on the membership of the above listed countries in the Development Assistance Committee of the OECD.